Summary of passage: Jesus renames Simon “Peter”, which means “rock” for Jesus will build his church around Peter and Hell will not overcome it. Jesus will give him the keys of the kingdom of heaven. He told his disciples not to reveal his identity to anyone.
6a) Deuteronomy 32:4, 15, 18, 30-31: God and/or Jesus
Matthew 16:23: an impediment, an obstacle to overcome
Ephesians 2:20: foundation would be the work and words or the apostles and prophets and the cornerstone is Jesus Christ
1 Peter 2:4-8: Christ
b) The rock is Christ and Jesus is blessing Peter with the authority to build his church. Peter was the first rock amongst Jesus’ church/building with Christ as the cornerstone.
7) Personal Question. My answer: That the gates of Hades or the gates of death will be defeated. Death and darkness will never prevail against the church, God, or His people.
8a) Acts 2 records the Day of Pentecost after the Resurrection where the first believers converted (almost 3000) and the Christian church was born. It is Peter who addresses these people; who speaks powerfully to convince them that they have just witnesses the most important event of all history: the resurrection of Jesus. It is Peter who explains the Holy Spirit and the meaning of Jesus’ death. God blessed Peter with this role.
In Acts 10, Peter is speaking to a crowd of friends and relatives in Cornelius’ (a Roman centurion or a Gentile) home. Peter explains again Christ’s life and death and it’s meaning and if you keep reading (Acts 10:44-48) all those there were converted and blessed with the Holy Spirit and they were Gentiles. Peter explains how Jesus came for all of mankind.
Hence, from these events, we see Peter as the one having been blessed by God to spread the word that He is for all mankind. That all are welcome at His table. And Peter becomes the Rock as he converts more and more people to begin the new church. He opens the kingdom to all.
b) Jews and Gentiles.
9a) In John, Jesus gives this power to all of his disciples (the Eleven). In Matthew, Jesus is speaking to his disciples as well. However, I believe Matthew can be interpreted to extend to all believers once they have the Holy Spirit. Hence, I would say all believers have this power to bring others to Jesus.
b) Binding and loosing were legal terms in use in the Jewish law in first century AD that all Jews understood. You were either “bound” or “loose” with regards to Jewish law. To bind was to be subjugated to the law; to be put under it or to prohibit something. To loose was to allow something under the law; to permit it.
Peter and the other apostles were given the authority by Jesus to set the terms of the New Covenant and “bind and loose” the Old Covenant. They would set the rules for the early church and build its foundation.
To some extent, the Church still has this power today as long as it is from God.
Conclusions: Admittedly, I groaned at question 8 and stopped working when I saw how much of Acts we had to read. Another example of how it’s okay to stop for the day when you’re just not into it and come back when your heart is ready to hear from God.
End Notes: Hades was the Ancient Greek god of the underworld (Roman name is Pluto). Hades was the place the dead went and lived. It wasn’t a place where only eternally damned people go. The Romans believed everyone went to Hades after death. Thus, it’s meaning is different than hell, which is often incorrectly equated today.
Good, brief explanation of binding and loosing: http://www.gotquestions.org/binding-loosing.html
Fun Facts: This was the first use of the word church in all of the Bible and it is used by Jesus way before Acts and Pentecost.
Peter is always listed first in the listings of the disciples in the Bible. There is no doubt he was specially blessed by God to spread the word.