Summary of passage: Jesus tells the Pharisees another parable. A landowner planted a vineyard, put a wall around it, dug a winepress, and built a watchtower. Then he rented the vineyard to some farmers and went away on a journey. When harvest approached he sent his servants to the tenants to collect his fruit. The tenants beat his servants and killed them. They even killed his son.
The Pharisees said the landowner should kill the tenants and find new ones. Jesus said that the kingdom of God would be taken from them and given to people who will produce fruit. The Pharisees understood the parable and knew Jesus was talking about them but they couldn’t arrest him because of the people.
b) Isaiah says it’s the house of Israel and the men of Judah. I was thinking earth.
d) Believers or prophets
f) AD 70 when the Romans destroyed Jerusalem and the Temple
g) New believers who would give the landlord his share of the crops (the fruit) or give him their belief in Jesus as a Savior. Or the apostles and the early church (the new tenants) who would bear fruit for God, serve Him, and give Him all the glory as deserved.
10a) Psalm 118:22-23
b) 1 Peter 2:7-8: The stone and rock are Jesus who is rejected by builders which has become the capstone and will cause unbelievers to fall
Romans 9:32-33: The stumbling stone, stone, and rock are Jesus who will cause unbelievers to stumble and fall.
1 Corinthians 1:23: Jesus is the stumbling block to Jews and foolishness to Gentiles.
c) By not believing in Christ as God’s Son and Savior
d) Personal Question. My answer: Romans 9 says one who trusts in him will never be put to shame. Ephesians says believers will be joined together and rise to be a temple as the Holy Spirit indwells them. It is encouraging to know with God will never fall or stumble but will rise.
Conclusions: My one quibble is Ephesians does not talk at all about how people reject and stumble over Christ. In fact, none of the passages really do. They merely say that people will stumble and fall. We have to infer that this is because of their unbelief.
I know we have studied stone and block before and its meaning, I believe last year in Acts. I think we would have been better off examining Mark and Luke where the parable of the tenants is told. Especially Luke where the people cried out to never let this be. Interesting.
End Notes: Other places the Bible mentions the vineyard as Israel: Deuteronomy 32:32, Psalm 80:8, Jeremiah 2:21, and Isaiah 5:1-7.
Jesus is condemning the Pharisees here as the tenants who are plotting to kill him. They deserve judgment and punishment as they themselves state. Jesus clearly states that he is finding new leadership or tenants who will carry on his work, specifically the apostles and the early church.
Other stones in the Old Testament depicting Jesus: The stone of Isaiah 8:13-15 that people stumble over, the foundation and cornerstone of Isaiah 28:16, and the stone of Daniel 2:34, 44-45 that destroys the world in rebellion to God.
When we fall we surrender to God or you can reject Jesus and be crushed by judgment.