Summary of passage: God did not reject His people. They have rejected Him, but not all of them. God has chosen a remnant (the elect) by grace and the others hearts’ were hardened towards Him.
3) God has chosen some to believe in His Son. Paul was chosen despite not believing in Christ in the beginning and Elijah was chosen as well, being the only one left standing.
4) A remnant is those chosen by God through grace to believe in Christ.
5) Part personal Question. My answer: God shows grace to the elect or those chosen. It is all by God’s grace that we are chosen. It is out of our control. He knows all.
Conclusions: A lot more here. We are studying this same passage tomorrow so we shall see what that brings. Please see End Notes for more in-depth analysis.
End Notes: In the Old Testament, the Jews and Israel are God’s elect, those chosen to be those whom God revealed Himself and His will to, and through whom he could exhibit and declare to the world his purposes and salvation. In the New Testament, Jesus is the Elect One, and through Him the church, replacing the old Israel in the purposes of God. This new race is mostly composed of poor and ordinary people (1 Corinthians 1:27-29).
The question as to whether the Jews are, as a people, still the elect of God is faced by Paul here in Romans 9-11 in the light of the salvation of God in and through Jesus. In chapters 9 & 10 Paul painfully admits that, on the whole, the Jews did not believe in Christ. Despite all the advantages of Old Testament history, they “stumbled over the ‘stumbling stone'” (Romans 9:32). In chapter 11, Paul goes back over that history and asks whether it was futile. Will the Jews come to believe in Christ some day? Did their tragic experience produce any advantage for the rest of the world? This chapter clearly shows God’s eternal love for his chosen people. Paul will conclude with a poetic outburst, celebrating God’s mysterious ways of working on earth.
Paul answers in Chapter 11: If Israel’s rejection of the gospel was somehow both consistent with God’s eternal plan (Romans 9:1-29) and Israel’s own choosing (Romans 9:30-10:21), then does this mean that Israel’s fate is settled, and there is no possibility of restoration? No!
For one, Paul is a Jew and he has been saved. We first look to ourselves for God’s grace. There is a remnant of Jews who embrace Jesus and like Elijah, God will work through them for the sake of the others. God often works in small groups and in the first century Jews believers in Christ were small and in Elijah’s time it was just him!
A remnant is “something left over”. In the Bible, it’s those who would survive God’s judgement and become the new, true Israel. The elect are those whom God has chosen for salvation out of His great love, not merit.
And it is by God’s grace (not works), and elect was chosen. God enlightens whom He so chooses because He’s God and can do whatever He wants. The Jews of Paul’s day were so secure in their idea of being the chosen people that the very idea became the thing that ruined them. This spiritual dullness had continued since Isaiah’s day.
The passage from Psalm was probably originally spoken by David concerning his enemies; Paul uses it to describe the results of the divine hardening.