Summary of Psalm 2:
David wonders why man even bothers to come against God and Jesus (the Anointed One). God laughs at them, saying Jesus is King, ruler of the Earth. David warns earthly kings to serve the Lord with fear for Jesus can destroy them in a moment. Blessed are those who take refuge in Jesus.
Summary of Psalm 110:
David speaks of Jesus again who is sitting at God’s right hand, awaiting his time to come and rule the earth (the Second Coming). The troops will be ready on that day, arrayed in holy majesty. Jesus is a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek. He will crush king and judge nations.
BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 11, Day 5: Psalms 2 and 110:
12) The complaint is God is in charge, instead of themselves. Same complaint. We want to be in charge of our lives when our lives belong to Him, and He is our Lord and master.
13) God laughs at pitiful mankind. He has installed His own King, Jesus, to rule over all. David warns the kings to be wise and serve God with fear, so Jesus does not destroy them in anger. Jesus spares those who call out his name and take refuge in his name. Isaiah tells us Jesus was pierced for our transgressions, taking our sins upon himself, and his wounds heal us. Jesus took the punishment meant for us upon himself. Thus, he is our refuge from God’s wrath.
14) Jesus is in the order of Melchizedek, which from Genesis means he is above the priests in the order of Levi. Jesus rules over all, will conquer all, and will judge all. The writer of Hebrews interprets this passage as Jesus guaranteeing a better covenant since he has a permanent priesthood and is able to save completely as our interceder.
15) Personal Question. My answer: No matter what is happening here on Earth, God is in charge, and He will conquer evil when the time comes. God will prevail, and we don’t have to worry about anything.
Conclusions: BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 11, Day 5: Psalms 2 and 110:
It seems we should have read Hebrews as well with all the references here to it! I love how God laughs at us and our pitiful attempts to overcome Him. It’s like a giant to an ant. I love Jesus above all else and the picture of crushing because that is how we should think of God — we’re mere specks to Him and His greatness, and He can crush us with a mere touch.
End Notes BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 11, Day 5: Psalms 2 and 110:
Psalm 2 Commentary:
Like many Psalms, the theme of Psalm 2 is emphasized in the final verse. We can defy God and perish, or surrender to Him and be blessed. The Psalm itself does not identify its author, but Acts 4:25-26 clearly attributes it to David.
The Psalmist seems genuinely mystified. The nations have no reason to rage against God, and they have no benefit in raging against Him. All is in vain.
Since the time of Babel, men continue to band themselves together against God. Men feel two or more of them united against God have a better chance than one man against God.
People oppose both the Lord and His Anointed. Anointed speaks of the Christ, the Anointed One. Since Jesus is the perfect representation of the Father (John 10:30, 14:9), if you oppose God the Father, you oppose Jesus. If you oppose Jesus, you oppose God the Father.
Those who oppose the Lord and His Anointed think of God as a bondage-bringer. God is a bondage-breaker, not a bondage-bringer.
Why does God laugh at mankind?
- God is in heaven; men are dust on earth.
- God is all powerful; men are weak.
- God is love and mercy; men are evil and unforgiving.
The writer of Hebrews quotes this passage in Hebrews 1:5 as evidence of the deity of Jesus and superiority to all angels. He mentions the more excellent name Jesus received, greater than all the angels. This is the “name” Son. While angels are sometimes called the sons of God in a generic sense (Job 1:6), the Father never said “My Son” to any angel in a specific sense. That is reserved for God the Son, the Second Person of the Trinity.
Note the idea of begotten in contrast to created. Jesus was not created; rather He created everything that was created (Colossians 1:16-17). Begotten describes a relationship between two beings of the same essential nature and being, but we create things of a different essential being and nature than ourselves.
The Lord’s Anointed — Jesus Christ
The Lord‘s Anointed holds the nations as His inheritance. He will rule over all nations and all judgment is His (John 5:22).
Revelation 11:15 describes an exciting consummation of this inheritance: Then the seventh angel sounded: And there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign forever and ever!”
The Lord‘s Anointed has such power over the nations that they are like clay pots that he can shatter with a blow from a rod of iron. This shows us just how foolish the nations are to defy the Lord and His Anointed. There is no reason and no benefit to their defiant opposition.
This is the kiss of submission where a dignitary receives the humble kiss of an inferior. It also shows the affection God wants in relationship to Him. God wants us to recognize our proper place before Him, but to also rejoice in Him and be affectionate in our relationship.
“Kissing was the token of subjugation and friendship.” (Clarke)
Take-away from Psalm 2:
- Will you be broken or blessed? The choice is yours.
Commentary Psalm 110:
This Psalm carries the title, A Psalm of David. Strangely, some scholars and commentators deny David’s authorship. Yet as Derek Kinder noted: “Our Lord gave full weight to David’s authorship and David’s words, stressing the former twice by the expression ‘David himself’, and the latter by the comment that he was speaking ‘in the Holy Spirit’ (Mark 12:36f.).”
Fun Fact: This remarkable Psalm is one of the most quoted in the New Testament. There are 27 direct quotations or indirect allusions to Psalm 110 in the New Testament.
David prophetically revealed the words of Yahweh (the LORD) to the Messiah, David’s Lord. This is clear not only from the context, but especially in how this verse is quoted in Matthew 22:43-45 and Hebrews 1:13.
Psalm 110 in the New Testament
Psalm 110:1 is one of the Old Testament verses most quoted in the New Testament:
- Jesus quoted Psalm 110:1 in Matthew 22:43-45 and Mark 12:36-37, showing how David called the Messiah “Lord” – recognizing that the Messiah was greater than David himself.
- Peter quoted Psalm 110:1 on Pentecost, explaining how David prophesied the deity and ascension of Jesus (Acts 2:24-26).
- Paul referred to Psalm 110:1 in 1 Corinthians 15:25, explaining the rule and dominion of Jesus Messiah.
- The author of Hebrews quotes Psalm 110:1 in Hebrews 1:13, referring to the superiority of Jesus Messiah over any angel.
- The author of Hebrews referred to Psalm 110:1 in Hebrews 10:13, explaining the rule and dominion of Jesus Messiah.
The fact that Yahweh—the LORD, the covenant God of Israel—spoke to one that David himself called Lord (Adonai) demonstrates that both Yahweh and Adonai mentioned in this verse are God.
We would say that Yahweh is the Triune God with references to the persons of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit each being Yahweh. Normally, when Yahweh is mentioned without specific connection to the person of the Son or the Holy Spirit, we assume it refers to God the Father. Therefore, here is God the Father speaking to the Messiah, God the Son.
Jesus rules over all
Jesus will have rule over all his enemies. Adam Clarke is among those who think the rod of Your strength represents the Gospel: “The Gospel-the doctrine of Christ crucified; which is the powerful sceptre of the Lord that bought us; is quick and powerful, sharper than any two-edged sword; and is the power of God to salvation to all them that believe.”
When the people of God see and experience the victory of their Messiah, they gladly give themselves to His work. They are willing in the day of His power. Since the Hebrew word translated power is the word for a host or army, the sense is that the Messiah’s people are gathered together as a willing army.
In the Hebrew, volunteers is “willingnesses”, i.e. most willing, as such plural words are frequently used.
The people of God praise the victorious Messiah, and are noted for their beautiful holiness, their radiant being (the womb of the morning), and their ageless strength (dew of Your youth).
‘Youth’ here is a collective noun, equivalent to ‘young men.’ The host of his soldier-subjects is described as a band of young warriors, whom he leads, in their fresh strength and countless numbers and gleaming beauty like the dew of the morning. (Maclaren, cited in Spurgeon)
Who is Melchizedek?
This is the oath of Yahweh (specifically, God the Father) regarding the Messiah, God the Son. He vowed that the Messiah had an eternal priesthood after the order of Melchizedek, who is mentioned in a single account (Genesis 14:17-24).
The Genesis 14:1-24 account is brief, but densely packed with information about Melchizedek.
- After Abraham defeated the confederation of kings who took his nephew Lot captive, he met with a mysterious priest named Melchizedek, whose name means king of righteousness and who was also king over the city of Salem (an ancient name for the city of Jerusalem), making him the king of peace.
- Melchizedek was not merely a worshipper of the true God. He had the honored title priest of the Most High God. The greatness of God magnified the greatness of Melchizedek’s priesthood.
- Melchizedek blessed Abraham, demonstrating his greatness over the patriarch.
- Abraham gave Melchizedek a tithe, which is a tenth part of all (all the spoils of battle, as mentioned in Genesis 14:20).
- There is no mention of any father or mother of Melchizedek, and he appears without any genealogy.
With this oath, God revealed that there is another order of priesthood, apart from the priestly order of Aaron. The priests were all descended from Aaron and served in the tabernacle and temple, offering sacrifices and conducting ceremonies according to God’s law. Yet God established another priestly order, after the pattern of Melchizedek.
The Significance of the Priesthood of Melchizedek
- This oath (You are a priest forever) was so important that the author of Hebrews refers to it five times (Hebrews 5:6, 5:10, 6:20, 7:17, and 7:21).
- Hebrews 5:6 and 5:10 emphasize that this was Yahweh’s declaration, not something that the Messiah claimed for Himself.
- Hebrews 6:20, the emphasis is on the idea that Jesus Messiah serves as a living, active High Priest for His people.
- Hebrews 7:17 emphasizes that the priesthood of Jesus Messiah according to the order of Melchizedek is better than the priestly order of Aaron because it is eternal and will never end and was founded on a direct oath of Yahweh, unlike the priestly order of Aaron.
The conquest of the Messiah
“The second part of the psalm carries the King into the battlefield. He comes forth from the throne, where He sat at Jehovah’s right hand, and now Jehovah stands at His right hand.” (Maclaren)
“Now the Lord (i.e. Yahweh) and his King act as one, and the army of volunteers which was seen in verse 3 is no longer in the picture. The battle is the Lord’s, yet he and his King are so united.” (Kidner)
With the authority mentioned in Psalm 110:2, the strength of the Messiah extends out of Zion, and brings the righteous judgment of God against even the greatest kings.
The Messiah judges all nations
The Second Coming is referenced here with the slaughter at the Battle of Armageddon (Revelation 19:11-18).
Messiah Himself is refreshed (drink of the brook) and exalted (lift up the head).
- Refreshed: Curiously, many commentators take this as a reference to the Messiah’s humiliation. It is better to see it as His refreshment on the day of battle. “Psalms 110:7 is usually taken as depicting the King as pausing in His victorious pursuit of the flying foe to drink, like Gideon’s men, from the brook, and then with renewed vigour pressing on.” (Maclaren)
- Exalted: The lifting of the head in the Bible means delivered from all sorrows and sufferings, and exalted to great glory, and joy, and felicity, as this phrase usually signifies (Psalms 3:3 27:6 Jeremiah 52:31) Hanging down the head in the Bible is great grief and shame (Lamentations 2:10).