BSF Study Questions The Life of Moses Lesson 30

Hey all,

As all of these are personal questions, I won’t be posting my answers here.  I’ll just give you all a summary of what I learned for the year.  This will be my Sharing Day so to speak.

I learned that God only desires our faith in Him and obedience.  That’s it.  Later, it’s changed to faith in His son, Jesus Christ.  It’s so simple that most people are tripped up by it.

I learned how truly amazing Moses was.  Everyone knows about Moses but most people just know him as the guy who parted the Red Sea and turned some water into wine (this was my impression at least).  But Moses was so much more.  He was the closest to God a person can be.  He did amazing things for 40 years for millions of people.  He had a heart for God.  He stumbled and paid the price like we all do.  But his life was extraordinary.  It gives courage to those of us who live ordinary lives.

I learned how incredibly stubborn God’s people were and how this explains much of how we are today.  Man’s nature never changes.  Neither does God’s.  Repeatedly, the Israelites fell. Repeatedly, they rebelled.  Repeatedly, they turned away.  Always God picked them up.  Always God forgave them.  Always grace prevailed.  God is amazing and loving and awesome. Compassionate, forgiving, and omnipotent.  Protector.  Provider.  Comforter.  The story of the Israelites journey out of Egypt is a story of grace and God’s goodness.  His will in all.

I learned about the importance of helpers.  How we all need them.  Asking for help is okay. Humbly receiving it is even better.

I learned how God’s grace and judgment are not to be questioned.  We all know His ways are not our ways.  We all deserve death.  Anything we receive in our walk on earth is all by Him.  Every breath is by His grace alone.  One day we will all take our last when He deems it so.  What would happen if we all lived out that truth?

The Study of Moses was a struggle for my kids, especially the giving of the laws.  The first half of Moses they loved.  Full of heroic stories and deeds.  The second half was a drag.  Archaic laws that went over their heads.  But they came and they had fun and I know they got something out of it. Even if they don’t realize it until later on down the road.

Anytime I read God’s word my faith is strengthened.  Moses is a man after God’s own heart. Knowing more about him helps me to know more about what God wants for me.  Moses’s walk was an extraordinary one.  I only hope I can lead one half as well!

Final Link:  Just a little summary in a nutshell of Moses’s life and some important lessons to glean:

http://www.gotquestions.org/life-Moses.html

Thank you all for studying with me, for sharing your thoughts, for being my “group”.  It was amazing.  I can’t wait for Revelation!  Bring it on!  Have a great summer break and God bless!

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BSF Study Questions The Life of Moses Lesson 25, Day 5: Numbers 31-36

Summary of passages:  Numbers 31:  The Lord orders Moses to take vengeance on the Midianites for the Israelites.  Moses orders 1000 men from each tribe.  Phinehas son of Eleazar accompanied the 12,000 men to blow the trumpets.  The wiped out all men from the tribe.  They captured all the women and children and took all of their animals back to the plains of Moab where the Israelites were encamped.

Moses was mad that the women were allowed to live when they were the ones who enticed the Israelites into sexual sin and brought about the plague.  He orders them to kill all the boys and every woman who has slept with a man.  Only the virgin girls are allowed to live.  Then all who had contact with a dead body or killed anyone in battle must cleanse themselves with water or fire and stay outside the camp for 7 days.

The Lord orders the spoils to be divided between the soldiers who fought and the rest of the community, including shares for the Levites.  Not one Israeli soldier died in the battle so they brought the gold they had taken as plunder as atonement to the Lord.

Numbers 32:  The Reubenites and the Gadites, seeing good land for their flocks where they were, asked Moses if they could stay here and not cross over into the Promised Land.  Moses reminds them the last time they refused to enter the Promised Land, the Lord’s anger burned against His people and He punished them by making them wander the desert for 40 years.  If they disobey again, Moses warns, they will be the cause of their destruction.

The Reubenites and the Gadites said they would fight with their brothers and take the land promised by God but that they wanted to stay here in the land on the east of the Jordan River.  Moses agreed but warned them they must keep their promised and fight.  So Moses gave them (including half of the tribe of Manasseh) the land they wanted.  They rebuilt the cities and drove out the Amorites.

Numbers 33:  Moses records the stages in their journey at the Lord’s command from Egypt to where they sit right now, on the Plains of Moab overlooking the Promised Land.  God says to drive out all of the inhabitants of the land, destroy all of their idols, take possession of the land and settle it, dividing it by lot according to size of the tribes.  God warns to carry out all of His commands or they will suffer what God does to the Canaanites.

Numbers 34:  God assigns the boundaries of the Promised Land for the 9 1/2 tribes on the West side of the Jordan River.  The 2 1/2 tribes on the East already have their inheritance.  The Lord appoints leaders from each tribe to assign the inheritance to the Israelites.

Numbers 35:  God commanded Moses to give the Levites towns to live in and pasturelands around the towns.  Six of the 48 Levite towns will be cities of refuge for those who kill someone to flee to so that they may stand trial and not be afraid of revenge killings.  If the person does not flee to the refuge town, then they open themselves up to be killed by relatives.

Numbers 36:  This solves the problem of what happens to the land given to Zelophehad’s daughters when they marry.  Thus God says Zelophehad’s daughters must marry within the clan of their father and this applies to every  daughter who inherits land for every Israelite must keep the inherited land in their family.  No inheritance may pass from tribe to tribe.

Questions:

9a)  Yes because the Midianite women were the ones who seduced the Israeli men and introduced other gods for them to worship.  They defiled the land and made it unholy, making it impossible to have God occupy it without atonement (Numbers 35:34).  What atones?  Blood.  Thus, blood had to be shed to make it holy for the Lord.

b)  Whole books have been written on this topic.  Honestly, it’s not for us to know God’s reasons for vengeance.  He says attack, the people attack.  He is God and we don’t question His authority over us.  But as a just God, the penalty for sin must be paid and punished.  Here, the punishment is death which is the punishment for all sin.  It is God’s right to mete it out.  We merely do His will.

Common reasons given for the wars in the OT:  The Promised Land was always in God’s plan.  He promised it to Abraham.  The Canaanites were not innocent people.  They had sinned and as punishment the Canaanites would lose their land (Deut 9:5). We’ve read about their sexual sin and sacrifice of children to false gods.  The Canaanites would contaminate the Israelites and thus had to be completely removed (which didn’t happen because the people disobeyed and the Babylonians would punish them for that).  This was about believers and unbelievers.

10a)  They had very large flocks and herds and wanted to settle in land suitable for the livestock.  I would say they are tired of traveling and ready to settle down.  The land they saw was good and saw no reason (besides obeying God) to continue on.  They were willing to help their brothers take the land so were willing to compromise.  However, they were complacent.  They were content with this land.  Complacency is contagious and leads to stagnation.  We should never be complacent in our growth with God.  Little did they know, but God had greater things for them in the land of Canaan if only they had obeyed.

b)  No.  He chastised them and reminded them about what happened the last time the Israelites refused to enter the Promised Land and basically said they would be the cause of God’s wrath and responsible for their destruction if they did what they proposed to do.

c)  Compromised.  The Reubenites and the Gadites agreed to help the Israelites fight to take the Promised Land and not return to their homes until every Israelite has received his inheritance.  They would not receive their inheritance on that side of the river, preferring these other lands instead.

11a)  So the Israelites will know from whence they came and the power of God who brought them thus far.

b)  Personal Question.  My answer:  Nothing.  My life is uneventful and not of import.  I would say my everyday living speaks for itself.

12)  In the culture of the day, if someone killed someone, their relatives could take revenge and kill you.  Here, God provides cities of refuge so if the killing was accidental, that person could have a fair trial.  This shows that God is the ultimate judge (who gives that authority to the proper authorities) to take a life and He protects His people from needless bloodshed.  God is the giver and the taker of life.  It is His decision.  He is the protector of His people out of His infinite love for us.

Conclusions:  Long lesson and not looking forward to next week where we are assigned to read the majority of Deuteronomy.  Awesome lessons of God reminding His people before they take over the Promised Land of what is important in their lives and just how far they have come.

End Notes:  Numbers 31:  The Israelites enacted vengeance because God told them to do so.  Today, our governments have been given the authority to enact vengeance by God, not us personally.

Note the priests went into battle with them–a sign of God’s blessing.

The custom was to kill the men and take the rest captive.  However, this was against God’s orders.

The male children had to be killed because at this time boys were raised to take revenge against those who had killed their fathers.  Hence, they were a threat to the Israelites.

Things that don’t seem a threat are what us as Christians stumble over.  That’s why it’s important to pray to God and let Him tell you what to do.  We can learn from the Israelites who didn’t eliminate the threat (the women) what can happen.

Purification was important–that’s why we have the Holy Spirit.

Normally the spoil would just be divided up amongst the warriors.  However, God didn’t want the reason for killing to be only about the spoils.  And a portion had to go to the Levites.  God wants givers and not just takers.

Numbers 32:  They were discouraging the others and saying by their example,”The fight was not worth it.  Let’s just be happy here.”  This should remind us of the 10 spies who discouraged the Israelites to not take the Promised Land the first time around.  Again, wholly following the Lord is not contentment with half of what God has for us.  We can accept others’ contentment except when it influences others.

Numbers 33:  Here we can see exactly how much the Israelites moved in 40 years!  For those of us who have moved a lot, this can be punishment in and of itself since it’s no easy task!

God accomplished two goals with the Israelites:  used them to judge the people of Canaan and gave them land promised long ago.

God’s warning will fall on deaf ears as the Canaanites are not completely destroyed and thus over time infiltrate the Israelites and bring about their destruction.

Numbers 34:  This is land given by God, not earned.  Debate over the “Wadi of Egypt” continues today: is this the Nile or some other stream?  Hence, the fight over the Sinai Peninsula continues.

God chose leaders to end any conflict once the land was split.

Numbers 35:  The Levites were distributed proportionately as well so that God’s people would have enough priests.  This reflects Christ as he went to the people and not just the people come to him.

Revenge killing is not bad per se.  It can work–except in the case of accidents.  This is where God steps in to protect His people.  If you murder someone, then yes you should suffer death as well.  However, accidents happen and God provides for that.  The difference between murder and kill here is important.

These cities were evenly distributed with good roads (Deut 19:3).  These cities were open to all and not just to the Israelites.

If found innocent, the man had to stay within the walls of the city until the death of the high priest.  Otherwise, he could still be killed.

The cities of refuge picture Jesus as he is our refuge.

We can murder someone’s reputation as well.

A murderer cannot buy his way out of proper penalty.

Unjudged murderers defile a land.  Unfortunately, a lot get away.  But God knows and they will face ultimate penalty with Him.

Numbers 36:  A picture of no perfect solutions in life.  If a daughter did choose to marry outside the tribe, she’d forfeit her inheritance.  They married their cousins so the land stayed within the family as well as the tribe.

End of Numbers:  We leave the Israelites about to take their final step into the Promised Land. They have come a long way but the last step is what counts.  Sadly, many Christians become lost in the Wilderness and never step into what God has for them.  Faith has brought them this far, but it will take even more faith to finish the journey.

Map showing division of the Promised Land:  http://www.biblestudy.org/maps/large-map-of-division-promised-land-to-israel.jpg

Map of Wilderness Journey up to the Jordan River:  http://www.keyway.ca/gif/wildjour.gif

BSF Study Questions The Life of Moses Lesson 25, Day 3: Numbers 27:12-23

Summary of passage:  The Lord tells Moses it is his time to die for his sins against him (Numbers 20:1-13).  But first he may climb a mountain and see the Promised Land before he dies.  Moses asks for a leader to be appointed to follow him so the people are not leaderless.  God said to appoint Joshua, a man with the Spirit in him, to take his spot through a ceremony performed by Eleazar, the high priest, to pass on Moses’s authority.  He will command the movements of the Israelites.  Moses did as the Lord commanded.

Questions:

5a)  He allowed Moses to climb a mountain and lay eyes upon the Land.

b)  That someone else be appointed as leader of the people.  His only concern seemed to be the people.

c)  Personal Question.  My answer:  I would pray for peace and faith when I died.  And no pain.  I would spend every waking moment with my family and pour out my heart to them.  I’d pray.  I’d cry.

6)  He had Joshua proclaimed leader in front of the entire community so all would know in the priest’s presence. He had Moses give him some of his authority so the whole community would obey him.  He had to ask the priest, Eleazar who would ask the Urim (see end note for more) for decisions.  He will command when the Israelites move.

He did not receive the fellowship of God like Moses did (no one has).  He did not know God face-to-face nor could he perform miraculous signs and wonders or awesome deeds and power that Moses could.  I wonder if God had been too close to Moses and too hurt by him to be as close to a human again while the human was on earth?

Conclusions:  Just like with Aaron and Eleazar, God laid out a plan of succession for Moses and Joshua since Moses was the only leader the Israelites had ever known in their lives.

I wish we would have read the parallel passages in Numbers with Deuteronomy instead of reading the whole book (almost) by itself and glossing over it (Lesson 26 coming up).  I loved it when we did that in the Study of Matthew last year.  That way we could see the different comparisons and glean more details and more understanding.  I learned a lot by studying just Numbers, but I feel I could have learned more.

End Notes:  Moses does get to step foot in the Promised Land in the Transfiguration (Matthew 17; Mark 9; Luke 9).  God is so gracious!

With the word shepherd here, Moses is previewing Jesus and showing us that Jesus will be the ultimate shepherd.

It is a specific mountain God wants Moses to climb but scholars are not sure which one it was.

BSF Study Questions The Life of Moses Lesson 24, Day 5: Numbers 25:6-18

Summary of passage:  An Israelite man brought a Midianite woman to the Tent of Meeting.  Phinehas, son of Eleazar, drove them through with a spear.  The plague against the Israelites stopped but 24,000 died.  God made a lasting covenant of priesthood with Phinehas because he was zealous for God’s honor and made atonement for the people.  The leader of the Simeonite family was killed and now God told the Israelites to treat the Midianites as enemies and kill them for their deception.

Questions:

10a)  Phinehas was jealous for God’s honor and the killing shed blood to atone for the Israelites’ sins.  Furthermore, Phinehas was just as jealous for God’s honor as God is jealous for His honor, showing how much Phinehas has a heart for God.

b)  Personal Question.  My answer:  Defend Him when blasphemied.  Tolerate no sin around you and say something when others are committing blatant sins against Him.  Be Godly yourself.

11a)  Balaam is credited with giving the Midianites the idea to entice/defeat the Israelites to sin by eating food sacrificed to idols and by committing sexual immorality.

[See also Numbers 31:16]

b)  Balaam was killed along with the five kings of Midian shortly after his blessings of the Israelites.  He is remembered as a lover of “wages of wickedness” according to Peter.  He is remembered as greedy and motivated by money–an unbeliever out for himself.

12a)  Personal Question.  My answer:  God cannot tolerate sin nor be near sin.  His honor matters and He rewards those who defend Him here on earth.  He punishes justly and gives all a chance to turn to Him.

b)  Personal Question.  My answer:  To be holy.  To maintain it.  To honor and defend it.

Conclusions:  Question 12 is a filler.  It’s nice to see Balaam being punished for his misdeeds. So often in this world we don’t see sin being punished.  We just have to trust the sinners will be handled by God in heaven.  Still, God is a just God and incidents like this renew our faith that He is in control and consequences will be paid.

End Notes:  Scholars believe Zimri was having sex with Cozbi right in front of the tabernacle, which would make sense to solicit such a reaction from Phinehas.

This one act stopped the plague–an encouragement to us who think sometimes what we do doesn’t matter.

Phinehas had the zeal of God and was ensured he would be the line of the priesthood out of Eleazar’s sons.

Now the Midianites are an enemy of God after they had attacked God’s people first.  God’s anger is burning against them and He orders them to be destroyed.  Good lesson not to mess with God and His people!

BSF Study Questions The Life of Moses Lesson 24, Day 2: Numbers 22:1-41

Summary of passage:  The Israelites are headed to the Promised Land and camped along the Jordan River across from Jericho.  Balak, the king of the Moabites, was scared of the Israelites so he asked Balaam to curse the Israelites.  God came to Balaam and warned him not to curse the Israelites for they are blessed.  So Balaam refused to curse the Israelites.  Balak sent more messengers to try and convince Balaam to curse the Israelites, offering him a handsome reward.  Still, Balaam refused but promised to speak to God again for them.  This time God said to go with the men and do only what He commands.

So Balaam starts his journey with the princes of Moab.  However, God is angry so He sends and angel who stands in the road to block their path.  The donkey sees the angel and turns off the road.  Balaam beats the donkey for disobedience.  Again, the angel blocks their path; again the donkey is beaten.  Again, the donkey sees the angel; again the donkey is beaten.

God made the donkey chastise Balaam for beating her three times.  Finally, the Lord opened Balaam’s eyes to see the angel. The angel says the donkey saved his life because she turned away.  Balaam repented and God told him once again to go with the men to Balak.

Questions:

3a)  “Terrified because there were so many people”; “filled with dread because of the Israelites”.  “This horde is going to lick up everything around us, as an ox licks up the grass of the field.”  “Come and put a curse on these people because they are too powerful for me.”

b)  If Balaam cursed the Israelites, then they could be defeated and driven out of his country.

c)  Sent ambassadors to see what the Israelites wanted.  Prayed to the One, True God about it.

d)  Kill them (Shiities killing the Sunnis and vice versa, various African tribes killing each other (Darfur region), Muslims killing Christians, terrorists indiscriminately killing).  Hostility, discrimination, etc.

4a)  Balaam obviously knew of the One, True God since he spoke to Him and feared Him.  Does that make him a believer?  No.   Joshua tells us he practiced divination.  In Deuteronomy, we see the Lord would not listen to Balaam and God listens to His children.

Numbers 22:7 speaks volumes here:  Balaam was working for a “divination fee”.  No true prophet of God is out for himself.  If any thing, being a prophet is more of a burden than a reward in terms of money here on earth.

b)  Personal Question.  My answer:  Don’t jump to conclusions.  As the donkey pointed out, the donkey’s behavior was way out of the ordinary, but Balaam did not take the time to figure out why.  Do not court temptation for in the end it will get you.  Some people will go against God’s will and nothing can stop them (not even Jesus himself) their hearts are so twisted.  People will do anything for money.

c)  Personal Question.  My answer:  Have patience when things are out of the ordinary.  Pray for God to be with me more.  Listen for God’s voice and not man’s voice.  Run from temptation.

Conclusions:  Could have done without personal questions.  I would hope most of us don’t beat our animals when they disobey.  They are after all lower animals and God charges us to care for them as such.  I would also hope if Jesus appears before us we won’t ask him for permission to sin.  If God says go one way, we go His way, not ours.  I love how God uses a beast of burden to tell Balaam he’s an idiot.  How humbling!

End Notes:  Balak had no need to fear the Israelites.  If he had known God’s word, God had commanded the Israelites to not harm the Moabites as their land was not part of the Promised Land (Deuteronomy 2:9).

This is the first time in the Bible we meet Balaam and we are given no background on him as to how he’s a prophet or comes to be held in such high regard by Balak.

Balak wants the people cursed so he knows enough about the Israelites to know they follow a powerful god.  And Balaam he believes is the man for the job.

Taking the divination fee was the first sin.  The second sin was even asking God when his heart was not right and knew the men were evil.  God, out of mercy, spoke with Balaam–for Balaam’s sake–in order to try and turn his heart to Him.

From Balaam’s answer to the elders, it is clear he wants to go but ‘mean, ol’ God’ won’t let him. Hence, Balak tries again, this time promising more riches, which is what Balaam wants.  Even though Balaam knows God’s will, he refuses to put away his sin.  He allows temptation in once more.

God does not change His mind when he allows Balaam to go with the men; He is setting Balaam up for judgment.

God is angry at Balaam’s rejection of His word.

Note how the donkey is more spiritual than Balaam, seeing a representative of its Creator and rightfully being fearful.  The donkey is a representative of all followers of God and Jesus:  he obeys and because he obeys he annoys the unbelievers and is punished by them and often killed.

Balaam should have known by the donkey’s reaction that something was wrong with this trip.  When the donkey speaks, Balaam’s heart is so twisted by his own desire and sin he doesn’t bat an eye at this miracle.

Scholars believe the angel is Jesus because he accuses Balaam of sinning against him personally (verse 32).

Balaam still wants to go and asks so.  God gives him over to judgment by allowing him to go.

With these actions, Balaam earns himself a place as a lover of money in the Bible and is held up as an example of what NOT to do:  2 Peter 2:15-16 & Jude 11.

Map Showing where Israelites are Encamped:  http://www.israel-a-history-of.com/images/EglonAndAmmon2.jpg

Clear Delineation of Negev and Moab:  http://www.bibletrack.org/notes/image/Israel_to_Moab.jpg

Fun fact:  The donkey is the only Biblical account of an animal speaking.  And an angel (Jesus) praised the donkey, proof God loves all His creations.

BSF Study Questions The Life of Moses Lesson 23, Day 3: Numbers 21:4-7

Summary of passage:  The Israelites are now traveling around Edom to the Promised Land.  Again, they are grumbling against God and Moses.  So the Lord sent poisonous snakes to punish the people for their sin.  They bit the people and many died.  They went to their intercessor, Moses, to pray for God to take the snakes away.

Questions:

4)  Because the Edomites refused them passage.

5a)  Opinion question.  My answer:  Not sure.  One would think they would be elated after their victory but taking the long way around through desert does take its toll.  They are probably travel weary.  Yet this shouldn’t surprise us.  The Israelites have been grumbling for years now about God’s provision.

b)  God

c)  God sent venomous snakes to kill them.

6a)  They recognized their sin, confessed it, and asked for God to relent and forgive them.

b)  Acknowledge your sin, confess it, and the Lord will forgive you.

c)  Personal Question.  My answer:  I dislike these questions that are so open-ended that I have trouble pin-pointing a specific time.  I would say too many to recollect as this occurs to me almost on a daily basis. I sin, I confess, I experience God’s grace and mercy.  This helps me in incalculable ways in terms of relieving my guilt, allowing me to be a better person, and be more like Jesus.

Conclusions:  Like Day 2, this lesson did nothing for me.  The questions were ones we’ve already seen in previous lessons [ Question 4 was Question 9b in Lesson 22.  Question 5b is numerous questions from previous lessons: Question 7a in Lesson 20, 6a in Lesson 21 ].  The ray of hope is God.  I just wish the people would see this–and I would as well.

End Notes:  Old habits die hard.  Here we see victory and then grumbling by the people.  This scares me as I would like to think I’d be different in these situations but what makes me better than the Israelites?  Nothing.  Very scary, impactful, and convicting when we read of God’s people rejecting Him over and over again.

If you look at my map links carefully (here’s ONE that shows a wide loop), you will see that the Israelites actually had to turn around and go back and away from Canaan to go around the Edomites.  Discouraging?  Yes.  An excuse to complain?  No.

Here we witness the new generation doing the same sins as the previous generation except upped a notch:  they grumble against God Himself as well as Moses.  Not good.  Not good at all.

Some translations say fiery serpents.  Mine says venomous.  This could refer to the color of the snakes as being red or their bite that may have burned like fire.

Scholars believe the victims were mostly of the older generation who died in fulfillment of God’s promise to not allow them into the Promised Land.

Note how the younger generation complained against God but how they also immediately repented and recognized God as their sovereign leader and the only one to save them.  Their hearts are His despite their missteps.

BSF Study Questions The Life of Moses Lesson 23, Day 2: Numbers 21:1-3

Summary of passage:  The Canaanite king of Arad attacked the Israelites and captured some.  The Israelites prayed for God to help them destroy these people, which the Lord granted, and the place was named Hormah.

Questions:

3a)  Personal Question.  My answer:  I expected them to do just this:  pray first and then do the Lord’s will because I think they would have learned their lesson from Numbers 14:41-45.

b)  The Lord listened and granted their request.

c)  Personal Question.  My answer:  Not sure.  I like to think I am depending on Him.  And I’m not for sure what if any situation in my life needs to be reversed at the moment.

Conclusions:  Sorely disappointed in this lesson.  I got nothing out of these 3 verses and the questions were lackluster.  I’m pretty sure BSF is looking for an answer to 3a to be:  Well, I expected them to just fight back without the Lord’s guidance.  Yet we have seen over and over again here the people’s turnarounds from sin to Him.  Thus, I expect the people to go to God first as I expect all Christians to do.

End Notes:  This was the exact same place I referenced in 3a–Hormah.  First, the Israelites were defeated there and now the Lord grants them victory when He is with them this time.  This would have been a much better question here for this section.

Map of Arad:  http://fgcp.org/system/files/images/Promise-Land-Era.jpg

Map of Hormah and the Route in Edom:  http://www.biblenews1.com/maps/Exodus.jpg

By totally destroying a city, the Israelites are turning it completely over to God.  This would ensure no one else could use this land; hence, dedicating it to the Lord.  This was one of the most sacrificial offerings to God because the land become His once again.

Expect to see more of the same once again of the Israelites to God as they proceed to the Promised Land:  faith and unfaith.