BSF Study Questions Romans Lesson 17, Day 4: Romans 10:5-9

Summary of passage:  Moses described righteousness by the law in terms of works.  But if you confess that Jesus is Lord and believe in your heart God raised him from the dead you will be saved.

Questions:

9)  Paul concludes that righteousness is by faith in Jesus Christ as our Lord and Savior and works has nothing to do with it since the law under Moses is now obsolete with Jesus.

10)  Confess that Jesus is their Lord and believe God raised him from the dead in their heart to cleanse us of our sins and justify us before God.

11)  Personal Question.  My answer:  One must believe in their heart that Jesus is Lord in their life and believe he died, washing away our sins, and God raised him from the dead, granting all eternal salvation.  You must also confess your belief.  Faith is what matters.  Nothing else does.

Conclusions:  Romans is a lot of repetition.  Here, Paul is quoting Moses from the Old Testament and repeating how faith in Christ is the key to salvation, not works.  Remember this section here is not only to the Gentiles and the Romans but to the Jews as well.  Paul is pulling from the Old Testament (what the Jewish people knew by heart) to substantiate his words of faith in Christ as the key to salvation.

End Notes:  The law of Moses said you must do the law completely and perfectly in order to have righteousness by the law.  The law of Jesus says we don’t have to do anything to achieve righteousness.  Instead, we receive righteousness through faith in Jesus.  We believe, we receive.  We don’t have to ascend into heaven or descend into the deep to have it.

In Deuteronomy 30:14 that Paul quotes, the word is God’s word as found in the law.  Paul applies this to the gospel of “the message concerning faith” or “the word of faith” and uses it to be how righteousness if gained by faith not deeds.

Confessing is recognizing and agreeing that Christ is Lord and Savior and that the cross is the only way to salvation.

In first century AD, calling someone “Lord” was taken much more seriously than in modern times because they truly did have lords in that day.

Barclay states:  “If a man called Jesus kurios he was ranking him with the Emperor and with God; he was giving him the supreme place in his life; he was pledging him implicit obedience and reverent worship.”

Wuest, quoting Robertson on Jesus Christ is Lord: “No Jew would do this who had not really trusted Christ, for Kurios in the lxx is used of God. No Gentile would do it who had not ceased worshipping the emperor as Kurios. The word Kurios was and is the touchstone of faith.”

Fun Facts:  This affirmation “Jesus is Lord” is the earliest Christian confession of faith (1 Corinthians 12:3) which served as the equivalent to the Jewish Sherma and was probably used at baptisms.  “Lord” is used over 6000 times in the Septuagint (the pre-Christian Greek translation of the OT) to translate Israel’s God (Yahweh).  It’s clear that Paul, when using this title for Jesus, is affirming that God of Israel was present in Jesus among his people.

Heart–In Biblical terms this is not only emotions and affections but also intellect and will.

Jesus rising from the dead is the crux of Christian doctrine.  If this doesn’t happen, we don’t live nor are we alive now.  This is the central thrust of apostolic preaching (Acts 2:14-40).

You will be saved probably includes final salvation at the end times as well.

You must confess AND believe that what God/Jesus did on the cross is what will save you and cleanse you and make you righteous and justified.

Spurgeon explains the kind of faith you need:  “We believe everything which the Lord Jesus has taught, but we must go a step further, and trust him. It is not even enough to believe in him, as being the Son of God, and the anointed of the Lord; but we must believe on him . . . The faith that saves is not believing certain truths, nor even believing that Jesus is a Savior; but it is resting on him, depending on him, lying with all your weight on Christ as the foundation of your hope. Believe that he can save you; believe that he will save you; at any rate leave the whole matter of your salvation with him in unquestioning confidence. Depend upon him without fear as to your present and eternal salvation. This is the faith which saves the soul.”

We must confess, believe, trust, rely, rest, depend, and embrace God and Jesus.  This is what God wants.  God is all encompassing.  God is everything.

BSF Study Questions John Lesson 17, Day 4: John 13:18-30; Psalm 41:9

Summary of passages:  John 13:18-30:  Jesus says he knows the hearts of all he has chosen and whoever whoever accepts those in his name (such as the disciples) accepts Jesus and thus accepts God.  Jesus knows Judas will betray him and he indicates this by giving him bread.  Judas takes it and Jesus tells him to betray him quickly and Judas leaves.  The disciples (clueless as ever) don’t understand.

Psalm 41:9:  Even friends betray one another.

Questions:

7)  We know that what the Bible says and what God says and what Jesus says is true.  We know we are to suffer to grow closer to Him.  We know we suffer because we are sinners.  But we also know we are forgiven in Christ, which gives us hope to grow through the painful circumstances and endure to the end.

8 )  Personal Question.  My answer:  Satan can infect anyone.

9)  Part personal Question.  My answer:  In one word:  dark.  He does not believe in Jesus or Jesus’ message.  He has believed the lies of Satan and let personal gain take over.  He has been blinded to the light and darkness reigns.

Conclusions:  Unsure here.  Something is missing here that I’m not unpacking and the questions aren’t jogging anything.  As always, read the end notes, which did unlock this passage for me.

End Notes:  John 13:18-30:  Jesus is predicting his betrayal for the other disciples’ sake.  He doesn’t want their faith to waver in him.  Hence, he’s telling him he knew all along Judas would betray him.  And Jesus is pointing out rejecting him as the one God sent is rejecting God.

Jesus loves Judas and thus is moved (and probably hurt) by the impending betrayal.  By telling all he knows about the betrayal, this shows Jesus is the one in control, not Satan or Judas.

The other disciples are confused because up to this point Judas has been one of them, doing everything and going through the motions of faith like so many do today.  They may have even thought Jesus was speaking of an unintended betrayal.

Peter, curious as always, asks John to ask Jesus whom he is speaking to.  One can imagine that in Peter’s mind, he’s gonna be the superhero here and stop the betrayal before it happens.  This also indicates to scholars that Peter is not sitting next to Jesus or he would have asked him himself.

FUN FACT:  This is the first of 4 times John refers to himself as “the one Jesus loved”.  The 4 are:

· Here in the upper room (John 13:23)

· At the cross of Jesus (John 19:26)

· At the empty tomb (John 20:2)

· With the risen Jesus at the Sea of Galilee (John 21:20)

All of these are connected with the cross and all indicate that John did not boast of this egotistically but out of the love of Jesus.

SPOILER ALERT FOR ART FANS:  The famous paintings you see of the Last Supper are all false (like this one HERE and HERE).  At a special or ceremonial meal like this they would lay on their stomachs around a U-shaped table, leaning on their left elbow and eating with their right hand their head towards the table, much like the Romans did at the time.  It seems that from John’s position next to Jesus, he could lean back and be close enough to speak quietly to Jesus and still be heard.  Bear in mind most of the artwork we associate with the Last Supper was painted 1000 years after the fact.  Times change and man for the most part had transitioned to eating sitting up at tables.  Hence, the depiction.

Picture this:  On each side of Jesus sat a disciple.  Spurgeon says it best:  “One of them was John the divine, and the other was Judas the devil. One of them was the seer of the Apocalypse, the other was the son of perdition.”

Another scholar, Morris, says this:  “The place of honor was to the left of, and thus slightly behind the principal person. The second place was to his right, and the guest there would have his head on the breast of the host. Plainly this was the position occupied by the beloved disciple.

The normal posture at a table was sitting, as rabbinical sources indicate; reclining was the posture reserved for special meals, such as parties, wedding feasts, etc.

Giving of dipped bread is like a toast today.  It was a special honor.  Jesus is still showing love to Judas even at the last hour.  Like he will to many of us at the Second Coming.  Jesus is showing how to love your enemies to the last and even offering Judas one last chance to repent.

Judas is in the place of honor and Jesus could speak to him without being overheard.  Also, scholars speculate that only John heard Jesus indicate Judas as the betrayer, being on Jesus’ other side.  Peter is the man of action, the superhero, and the one to defend Jesus with gusto and bravado and sometimes without thinking (like we’ll see in the Garden).  John did nothing to stop Judas from leaving and we are not told why.  He could have been shocked or he could have trusted Jesus to have it all under control.  We don’t know.  All we are told is “no one understood Jesus”.

FUN FACT:  This is the only time John uses the name Satan in his Gospel.

Judas rejects Jesus’ final act of love and Satan then completely takes over.  It’s a choice of Free Will.  And Judas will pay the ultimate price.

With the words “do quickly” Jesus is indicating he’s the one in control.  He would die as he directed, not as his opponents determined.

The disciples just thought Judas, as the one in charge of the money, had left to pay the bill or give alms to the poor.  Note how even though Jesus and them had little money they still gave what they could.  It’s not the amount you give but the heart that matters.

No one is immune from the devil.  Judas was one of the 12.  He lived with Jesus.  He listened to Jesus.  He watched Jesus perform miracle after miracle.  He was one of the best and still he was lost.  Man needs more than an example and good teaching.  It’s a turn of the heart.  If that doesn’t happen, there is no hope.

Psalm 41:9:  This is David lamenting how he was betrayed by good friends.  Two of which we know are his own son Absalom (2 Samuel 15) and by a trusted adviser named Ahithophel (2 Samuel 15:12 and 15:31).

This has the sense of an unexpected attack or someone taking advantage of someone.  In ancient times, if you take bread with someone you should be forever grateful.  If you then lift your heal agains them, it’s great betrayal.  It’s like the saying “don’t bite the hand that feeds you.”

Jesus left off the words “whom I trusted” because Jesus did not trust Judas.