BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 14, Day 2: 1 Samuel 25:1-13

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Summary 1 Samuel 25:1-13:

Samuel died, and David moved to the Desert of Maon. There, a wealthy man named Nabal and his wife, Abigail, lived. His men were shearing sheep when David asked him to give him whatever he could. Nabal refused, so David prepared to fight.

BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 14, Day 2: 1 Samuel 25:1-13:

3) Part Personal Question. My answer: Nabal is “surly and mean in his dealings.” He is also greedy, ungenerous, and skeptical. I’m the same. I don’t believe people most of the time nor do I give out random things to people I don’t know. I bet Nabal got a lot of people begging from him, so he didn’t care who David was, the answer was no.

4) David immediately gets angry after a simple no. It seems David has gotten used to getting what he wants because of who he is since he identifies himself. He and his men put on their swords, seemingly with the intention to kill Nabal’s men and/or his livestock.

5) Personal Question. My answer: Those around me. Anger affects those closest to us. I need to be better when I don’t get my way. It all depends on what it is and how bad I want something. Still, we can’t have everything we want as David shows us here. We need to react calmly, not overreact, and move on with our lives.

Conclusions: BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 14, Day 2: 1 Samuel 25:1-13:

David does act impulsively, believing he is owed something by a man he had no agreement with. Maybe he and his men are starving. Still, that’s no reason to go and fight. It also seems like Samuel died unceremoniously. I’m sure he was remembered, but the writer here doesn’t care to go into it.

End Notes BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 14, Day 2: 1 Samuel 25:1-13:

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Samuel seemed to be unappreciated by Israel during his life (1 Samuel 8:1-7) but at least he was honored in his death. 1 Chronicles 9:22 suggests he organized the Levites in the service of the sanctuary which was completed by David and Solomon. 1 Chronicles 26:27-28 says Samuel began collecting treasures for building the temple in Solomon’s day. 2 Chronicles 35:18 reports that Samuel remembered the Passover and kept Israel in remembrance of God’s great deliverance. Psalm 99:6 and Jeremiah 15:1 commemorate Samuel as a man of great intercession. Hebrews 11:33 puts Samuel among God’s “Heroes of Faith.”

What are the 4 kinds of riches?

  1. What you have
  2. What you do
  3. What you know
  4. What you are

Nabal only was wealthy in what he had.

This was the “harvest time” for a sheep rancher, which was a time of lavish hospitality towards others.

“Sheep-shearing was traditionally celebrated by feasting with enough to spare.” (Baldwin)

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The name Nabal means fool. In ancient Israel, names were often connected with a person’s character. He was of the house of Caleb, which means dog. This was no compliment.

FUN FACT: Only Rachel (Genesis 29:17) and Esther (Esther 2:7) are described with the same Hebrew word as the one here that describes Abigail as beautiful.

Why was Abigail with Nabal?

  • We can understand it in that day of arranged marriages — a noble woman with a surly man. “It is remarkable how many Abigails get married to Nabals. God-fearing women, tender and gentle in the sensibilities, high-minded and noble in their ideals, become tied in an indissoluble union with men for whom they can have no true affinity, even if they have not an unconquerable repugnance.” (Meyer)

David believed because he protected Nabal’s sheep of his own accord that Nabal owed him compensation. How often do we do this?

Nabal had to have known who David was, because David was famous throughout all Israel (1 Samuel 18:5-7). Nabal said this as a direct insult to David – knowing who he was but refusing to recognize him. In our modern way of speaking, Nabal said, “Who does he think he is?”

Nabal looked at all of his material blessings as his instead of as God’s.

What do we learn by David’s overreaction?

This is not a high moment for David. He doesn’t respond the way God would have him respond to an insult.  We are supposed to bear insults with love and kindness, returning their evil with our good.  Whoever slaps you on your right cheek, turn the other to him also. (Matthew 5:38-39)

This is striking since we just saw in the previous chapter how David responds to Saul. David was able to be kind to Saul, but it seems to have been harder to do it towards someone he perceived as his equal or lower than himself. Often, this is true measure of our character – not how we treat our superiors, but how we treat our equals or those “beneath” us in some way or another.

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BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 13, Day 5: 1 Samuel 24 and Psalm 57 and 142

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Summary 1 Samuel 24:

Saul pursued the Philistines then learned David was in the Desert of En Gedi. Saul and 3000 men looked for David near the Crags of Wild Goats. Saul found a cave to use the bathroom in. David and his men were hiding in this cave. At the urging of his men, David cut a piece of cloth off Saul’s robe, but refused to kill him for he was the Lord’s anointed.Image result for 1 samuel 24

Saul left the cave, and David revealed himself, bowing down before Saul. He said he could have killed him but did not. He is guilty of no wrong-doing, and may God be the judge between them. Saul, in tears, admitted David is more righteous than he and asked the Lord to reward him for sparing his life. He knows David will be king, and had DAvid swear not to cut off his descendants. Saul went home; David to his stronghold.

Summary Psalm 57:

David takes refuge in God’s mercy. God fulfills His purpose for him, saves him, and rebukes those who pursue him. God sends His love and faithfulness. David is in the midst of lions, God be exalted. David will praise God. Great is God’s love and faithfulness.

Summary Psalm 142:

David tells God his troubles. God guides him through them. God is David’s refuge from those who pursue him. The righteous (supporters, friends) gather around him because of God’s goodness.

BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 13, Day 5: 1 Samuel 24 and Psalm 57 and 142:

13) David’s men assumed they knew God’s will. They assumed because Saul appeared before them — alone and vulnerable — that God was delivering Saul into David’s hands. We make assumptions all the time — probably more so than in ancient times. We assume what people mean, what people’s actions mean, and what God wants us to do, often not asking first. We do the same thing.

14) David said the Lord forbid him to do anything to his master, the Lord’s anointed, or lift a hand against him. Personal desire in David wanted to kill Saul and finally have his revenge. God’s desire stayed his hand. It is all about God for David and what God wants.

15) Personal Question. My answer: He invites me to do the right thing in every situation. How often do I do it? Unsure. Probably not often. Fighting against your inner desire when you know God’s desire is difficult. Overcoming human emotions is difficult. Every day I pray God wins a little bit more in these situations.

16) Part personal Question. My answer: David’s ultimate prayer is for God to be his refuge and guide him, and for God to rebuke his enemies. Still David praises and exalts the Lord in all his troubles. David is praying in faithfulness that God has it and will handle all his problems. So must we. We need to pray, knowing God has got it, knowing God will take care of all of our worries and heartaches. We still must praise and exalt him for His goodness despite our ignorance of what His will is. He is our refuge, our guiding light, and our hope.

Conclusions: BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 13, Day 5: 1 Samuel 24 and Psalm 57 and 142:

It struck me that Saul does not apologize for his actions. I sense no remorse for chasing David for years or disobeying God. It seems Saul has finally decided David will be king when he dies, so he’s happy to return home and live a kingly life. Very sad.

David’s faith once again shines in all these passages. He knows God will deal with Saul His way. He knows God will rescue him. He knows God is faithful and good. David sings as much. Honoring God despite our hardships has to be forefront. A faithful heart is what God wants first; the rest will follow.

Audio Version of 1 Samuel 24 HERE

End Notes BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 13, Day 5: 1 Samuel 24 and Psalm 57 and 142:

Commentary 1 Samuel 24:

In the previous chapter, God miraculously delivered David by drawing Saul away to fight the Philistines at the moment Saul was ready to capture David. But when Saul was done with the Philistines, he went back to pursuing David.

We often wish that our next victory would be a permanent victory. We wish that the spiritual enemies who pursue us like Saul pursued David would simply give up, and we wouldn’t have to bother with them any more. But even when we have victory and they are sent away, they come back, and will keep coming back until we go to glory with the LORD. That is the only permanent victory we will find.

The Desert of En GediImage result for 1 samuel 24

The En Gedi canyon runs westward from the Dead Sea. One can still see the good-sized creek flowing down the canyon, making En Gedi, with its waterfalls and vegetation seem more like a tropical paradise than the middle of the desert.

One can also see the numerous caves dotting the hills. This was a great place for David and his men to hide out. In the middle of barren desert, scouts could easily detect approaching troops. There was plenty of water and wildlife and many caves and defensive positions.

In the Cave

The sheepfolds: This indicates that this was a large cave, big enough to shelter a flock of sheep. All or most of David’s 600 men could hide in the recesses of the cave.

Saul went in to attend to his needs: Since the Bible is a real book, dealing with real people living real lives, we aren’t surprised to see it describe Saul’s attention to his personal needs. But something as basic and common as this was timed and arranged by God without Saul having any knowledge of God’s timing or arrangement of things.

The fact that Saul went in to attend to his needs also meant that he went into the cave alone. His soldiers and bodyguards were out of the cave waiting for him.

Coincidence Saul chose David’s cave?

  • What are the chances? Saul must attend to his personal needs at the very moment he passes by the very cave where David hides. This was no coincidence but arranged by God to test David, to train David, and display David’s godly heart.

David’s men were excited at the opportunity and believed it was a gift from God. They knew it was no coincidence that Saul came alone into that cave at that moment. They thought this was an opportunity from God to kill Saul.

Apparently, on some previous occasion God promised David, “Behold, I will deliver your enemy into your hand, that you may do to him as it seems good to you.” They believed that this was the fulfillment of the promise and that David needed to seize the promise by faith and by the sword.

We can imagine David listening to this counsel from his men and with his sword creeping quickly towards Saul, covered by the darkness of the cave. David’s men are excited; their lives as fugitives are about to end, and they will soon be installed as friends and associates of the new King of Israel. But as David came close to Saul and put forth his sword he didn’t bring it crashing down on Saul’s neck or thrust it through his back. Instead he secretly cut off a corner of Saul’s robe.

How did David sneak up on Saul unbeknownst?

  • Saul may have laid his robe down in one part of the cave, and attended to his needs in another part, so David did not have to get right next to Saul to cut off a corner of his robe.
  • There was enough noise and commotion from the thousands of men outside of the cave along with their horses that David was simply undetectable.

Why did David spare Saul?

  • David knew God’s promise said, “You will inherit the throne of Israel.”
  • David knew Saul was in the way of that promise.
  • David knew it was disobedient of him to kill Saul because God put Saul in a position of authority
  • David knew it was God’s job to take care of Saul not David’s. David wanted the promise to be fulfilled but he refused to try and fulfill God’s promise through his own disobedience.

Sometimes when we have a promise from God we think we are justified in sinning to pursue that promise. This is always wrong. God will fulfill His promises, but He will do it His way, and do it righteously. Instead, we need to be like Abraham, who obeyed God even when it seemed to be at the expense of God’s promise, willing to sacrifice the son of promise (Genesis 22). Even more, we need to be like Jesus, who didn’t take Satan’s offer to “win back the world” at the expense of obedience (Luke 4:5-8).

What did David know?

  • David knew how to wait on the Lord
  • David knew how to wait for the Lord

“We wait on the Lord by prayer and supplication, looking for the indication of his will; we wait for the Lord by patience and submission, looking for the interposition of his hand.” (Meyer) David was determined that when he sat on the throne of Israel it wouldn’t be because he got Saul out of the way but because God got Saul out of the way. He wanted God’s fingerprints on that work, not his own, and he wanted the clean conscience that comes from knowing it was God’s work.

We also see that David’s heart didn’t store up bitterness and anger towards Saul. Even as Saul made David’s life completely miserable, David kept taking it to the Lord, and he received the cleansing from the hurt, the bitterness, and the anger that the Lord can give. If David stored up bitterness and anger towards Saul, he probably wouldn’t have been able to resist the temptation to kill him at what seemed to be a “risk free” opportunity.

Image result for caveWhy did David feel guilty for cutting Saul’s robe?

  • The robe was a symbol of Saul’s royal authority, and David felt bad – rightly so, according to the heart of God – that he had done anything against Saul’s God appointed authority.
  • In that day, a man looked ridiculous with his clothes cut short. In 2 Samuel 10:4-5, cutting a garment was a deliberate insult that led to war.

David wouldn’t allow his men to kill Saul either, thereby taking the responsibility off his hands directly.

Why did David reveal himself to Saul?

  • David cares for Saul and wants to reconcile with him.

Saul could have killed David when David bowed before him. David believed God would keep him safe as he did right before God.

David covers Saul’s sin and is careful not to blame Saul directly. David shows mercy and kindness to Saul. David will fulfill Proverbs 10:12Love covers all sins, and 1 Peter 4:8Love will cover a multitude of sins.

It is entirely wrong for people to use the idea of touch not the Lord’s anointed to insulate a leader from all evaluation or accountability. We can criticize and confront our pastors when they sin.

What does the tearing of Saul’s robe symbolize?

  • The robe was a picture of Saul’s royal authority, and through this God said, “I am cutting away your royal authority.”

In 1 Samuel 15:27-28 the prophet Samuel rebuked Saul for his hard-hearted disobedience to God. In his distress, Saul tried to keep Samuel from leaving, and grabbed his robe, and a portion of the prophet’s robe tore away. When Saul was left holding the torn piece of Samuel’s robe, Samuel said to him: The LORD has torn the kingdom of Israel from you today, and has given it to a neighbor of yours, who is better than you. Now, when David confronts Saul with the torn robe, Saul must be reminded of this incident, and God’s message to him was loud and clear.

It was God’s business to take Saul’s throne and no one else’s. Jesus established the same principle in Matthew 18:7 when He said, offenses must come, but woe to that man by whom the offense comes! God’s judgment is God’s business. We put ourselves in a bad place when we make ourselves instruments of God’s judgment.

Saul softens

David’s obedience to God and his love to Saul made all the difference in softening Saul’s heart.

Saul wanted the same kind of promise from David that he made to Jonathan in 1 Samuel 20:13-16. In that day, when one royal house replaced another it was common for the new royal house to kill all the potential rulers from the old royal house. Saul knew that one day David and his descendants would rule over Israel, and he wants David to promise that David and his descendants will not kill or mistreat the descendants of Saul. David let Jonathan’s son Mephibosheth live (2 Samuel 9) in part because of his promise to Jonathan and Saul.

David stays away from Saul because he is unconvinced Saul’s heart is changed permanently.

Commentary Psalm 57:

Derek Kidner says of Do not Destroy: “This may well be a tune-indication. Isaiah 65:8, where the phrase is identified as a popular saying (perhaps a snatch of vintage song), and borrowed to become a reassuring word from God. Yet notice also David’s instructions about Saul, ‘Destroy him not’ (1 Samuel 26:9).”

Charles Spurgeon noted, “There are four of these ‘Destroy not’ Psalms, namely, the 57th, 58th, 59th, and 75th. In all them there is a distinct declaration of the destruction of the wicked and the preservation of the righteous.”

This is another Michtam, or Golden Psalm. The cave was probably Adullam cave, mentioned in 1 Samuel 22:1, though the caves of En Gedi (1 Samuel 24:1) are also a possibility. Adullam seems to be the best fit; therefore we can say that Psalm 34 is also associated with this period of David’s life.

David repeats the request of mercy twice. When he fled from Saul into the cave, he had been through several near-death terrors (see Psalm 56). David came to Adullam cave (1 Samuel 22) alone, discouraged, and in continued danger. He needs mercy right now, and God is his only hope.

Using a familiar image of a mother bird shielding her young from danger that we’ve seen before, David expressed his trust and hope in God for defense.

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FUN FACT: This figure of speech is also used in three other Psalms (Psalms 17:836:7, and 63:7). Jesus used this same word picture to show his love and desired care for Jerusalem (Matthew 23:37).

Morgan connected this with Psalm 55:6 (Oh, that I had wings like a dove! I would fly away and be at rest). “There the desire was for the inefficient wings of a dove for flight. Here the sense is of the sufficient wings of God for refuge until calamities are past.” (Morgan)

God as Refuge

“We should notice that David does not call the cave his refuge, though it was a refuge in a certain physical sense. Rather it is God whom he calls his refuge.” (Boice)

David came to the cave alone, and God was his only help. Yet he was confident, knowing as a military man the strategic value of high ground in battle. He looked to help from the Most High who occupied the greatest high ground of all: heaven.

“It is a marvelous thing to consider God is literally willing to perform all things in us, and for us, if only we will let Him. The mischief is that most of us insist on performing all things in the energy of our own resolve, in the strength of our own power.” (Meyer)

Selah: “The Selah at the end of the clause is unusual in the middle of a verse; but it may be intended to underscore, as it were, the impiety of the enemy, and so corresponds with the other Selah in Psalms 57:6, which is also in an unusual place, and points attention to the enemy’s ruin, as this does to his wickedness.” (Maclaren)

Lions in the Bible

There may have been lions prowling around David’s shelter.

Be sober, be vigilant; because your adversary the devil walks about like a roaring lion, seeking whom he may devour (1 Peter 5:8)

Spurgeon’s advice for believers who think they are among lions:

  • You have fellowship with Jesus
  • You will be driven closer to God
  • God has them on a leash
  • There is a more powerful Lion — the tribe of Judah

“The fiercest of beasts, the most devouring of elements, and the sharpest of military weapons, are selected to represent the power and fury of David’s enemies and the wretchedness of his present condition.” Horne

What did David know that we often forget?

  • David knew all his problems came from earth; he would glorify God above the earth.

The pit prepared by enemies has instead trapped themselves who dug it.

The Psalm began with David twice appealing for mercy; now David twice expressed his steadfast confidence in God and sang.

The Psaltery [lute] was a stringed instrument, usually with twelve strings, and played with the fingers. The harp or lyre was a stringed instrument, usually consisting of ten strings.

I will praise you, O Lord, among the nations: “These words, or their near-equivalent in Psalm 18:49, are taken with full seriousness in Romans 15:9as a prophecy which had to be fulfilled.” (Kidner)

Lessons from a cave:

  • A cave narrows and darkens the vision of most people, but David’s heart and song exalted the mercy and truth of God even from the darkness.
  • A cave was a long way from the throne of Israel God had promised David. David didn’t wait for his circumstances to change before he praised God. He knew they would change, and he thanks God ahead of time for it.

“The resurrection of Jesus from the grave, foreshadowed in the deliverance of David from the hand of Saul, was a transaction which caused the heavens and all the powers therein, to extol the mercy and truth of God.” (Horne)

Verse 11 repeats verse 5 because of its goodness and for emphasis (“Be exalted, O God”).

Commentary Psalm 142:

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According to James Montgomery Boice, the Hebrew word for Contemplation (maskil) might be better understood as instruction. “He calls this prayer Maschil, ‘a Psalm of instruction,’ because of the good lessons he had himself learned in the cave, learned on his knees, and so learned that he desired to teach others.” (Matthew Henry, cited in Spurgeon)

The cave was probably Adullam cave, mentioned in 1 Samuel 22:1, though the caves of En Gedi (1 Samuel 24:1) are also a possibility. Adullam seems to be the best fit; therefore we can say that Psalms 34 and 57 are also associated with this period of David’s life.

“There are two notes running side by side throughout the song. The first is that of this terrible sense of helplessness and hopelessness so far as man is concerned. The other is that of the determined application of the helpless soul to Jehovah.” (G. Campbell Morgan)

David declares allegiance to God

Verse 1 is David’s declaration of allegiance to Yahweh, the God of Israel.

Spurgeon says of caves:  “Caves make good closets for prayer; their gloom and solitude are helpful to the exercise of devotion. Had David prayed as much in his palace as he did in his cave, he might never have fallen into the act which brought such misery upon his later days.”

Is it wrong to “complain” to God?

David asks God’s help in the face of enemies who hoped to trap him, so this complaint is likely against his enemies. David did the right thing with his complaint; he brought it before the LORD.

My complaint is not as petulant a word as in English, but might be rendered ‘my troubled thoughts’.” (Kidner)

“The outpouring of complaint is not meant to tell Jehovah what He does not know. It is for the complainer’s relief, not for God’s information.” (Maclaren)

I pour out: “Those words teach us that in prayer we should not try to keep anything back from God, but should show him all that is in our hearts, and that in his presence in our closet, with the door shut, but not before men.” (Neale and Littledale, cited in Spurgeon)

David had the heart later expressed by the Apostle Paul in Philippians 4:6Be anxious for nothing, but in everything by prayer and supplication, with thanksgiving, let your requests be made known to God.

“David had no provisions, no followers, and no place to turn. David then went to Gath, the Philistine city, but this proved to be both dangerous and unworkable, and David eventually escaped into the wilderness again and hid in the cave of Adullam.” (Boice)

“It is not merely words that you have to utter, you have to lay all your trouble before God. As a child tells its mother its griefs, tell the Lord all your griefs, your complaints, your miseries, your fears. Tell them all out, and great relief will come to your spirit.” (Spurgeon)

God knows our journey

Anytime David felt overwhelmed, he found confidence in knowing that God knew his journey and his walk. God knows our path and our walk in all of its good and all of its bad.

Overwhelmed: “David was a hero, and yet his spirit sank: he could smite a giant down, but he could not keep himself up. He did not know his own path, nor feel able to bear his own burden.” (Spurgeon)

God could preserve him from secret snares.  David knew that even if he were forsaken by men, God had not forsaken him. He had the confidence that God Himself was his portion, his inheritance.

The ‘right’ signifies the place where one’s witness or legal council stood.

Among men, David had no refuge (Psalm 142:4). David could confidently proclaim that God was indeed his refuge. The cities of refuge were for the protection of an Israelite in special circumstances, and David found his place of refuge not in a place or in a particular circumstance, but in the Lord Himself.

We can’t pretend before God

David once again brought his cry to the Lord, this time honestly confessing his low circumstances. David didn’t feel a need to pretend that everything was fine or that he wasn’t weak; he could come to God for help even when brought very low by persecutors who were stronger than David.

“The song ends with an earnest cry for deliverance and an affirmation of confidence that the cry will be heard and answered.” (Morgan)

They are stronger than I: This means that David well understood his present weakness. The one who killed Goliath felt himself to be very weak, which was a good place for David to be. God’s strength would soon flood his life.

“‘My soul’ is frequently a longer way of saying ‘me’.” (Kidner)

“‘Prison’ may denote actual imprisonment but may also be a metaphor for his desperate condition in the light of the allusions to adversity and isolation (cf. Psalm 107:10Isaiah 42:7).” (VanGemeren)

Confidence in the Lord:

  • David began the song with complaint (Psalm 142:2); he closes confident of praise to come.
  • David began the song with a great sense of isolation (Psalm 142:4); he closes with confidence in soon companionship and support from the righteous.
  • David began with the sense of being low and weak (Psalm 142:6); he closes confident in God’s future goodness, knowing that God would deal bountifully with him.

The righteous shall surround me: “The Hebrew translation means ‘shall crown me’; that is, shall encircle me, as wondering at thy goodness in my deliverance; or they shall set the crown on mine head.” (Trapp)

“Perhaps when David wrote the song he already began to realize that the crowd of men in debt, in danger, and discontented who were coming to him would presently bring him into his kingdom.” (Morgan)

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BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 13, Day 3: 1 Samuel 22 and Psalm 52

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Summary 1 Samuel 22:

David escaped Gath and went to a cave of Adullam. All the misfits of the world heard of his plight and how he was there, so they all gathered around him — about 400 in total.

Then David went to Mizpah in Moab and asked the king if his father and mother could come and stay with him until he know what God would do with him, which the king agreed. However, the prophet Gad told David to go to Judah, so David went to the forest of Hereth.

Saul learns of David’s whereabouts and takes officials to the tree of Gibeah. He rants about how everyone has conspired against him — even his own son (Jonathan) made a covenant with David. It’s a pity party to say the least.

Image result for 1 samuel 22Doeg the Edomite (1 Samuel 21:7) tattles that he saw David go to Ahimelech the priest at Nob who gave David provisions and Goliath’s sword. Saul sends for the priest and his family and asks him why he conspired against him. Ahimelech said he merely did what he was asked, knowing nothing of the inner workings of politics between them. David is a loyal servant to the king. Why wouldn’t he inquire of the Lord for him?

Saul orders the priests killed because, in his mind, they conspired against him as well. The officials refused, but Doeg agreed to do it. 85 priests were killed and Nob was destroyed — all who lived inside it.

One priest escaped named Abiathar. He fled to David and told him what happened. David felt responsible for the deaths and promised to protect Abiathar.

Summary Psalm 52:

Written about Doeg, David is angry, but knows God is just and will deal with Doeg. He knows Doeg is a disgrace and evil, God will bring him down, and the righteous will know God is not his stronghold. David trusts in God’s unfailing love, praising Him and hoping in Him.

BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 13, Day 3: 1 Samuel 22 and Psalm 52:

6) Part personal question. My answer: Saul is a madman. Saul is throwing a pity party and, blinded by his own pride, kills innocent people. When Saul finds out the truth about the priest, he still accuses him of wrong doing and acts on this knowledge — killing them. How often do we do this as well? Throw a pity party, twist things in our minds — what others do or say — and then don’t believe the truth and still hold grudges against others? It’s definitely a warning to us to not get so caught up in ourselves and our conceived hurts and injustices, to find out the truth, and to act on the truth — not distort the truth.

7) Part personal question. My answer: David is sympathetic to the priests and blames himself for their deaths. He knew Doeg was evil and would tell Saul about him, but he did nothing (he probably thinks he should have killed Doeg — a sin of itself — to spare the priests). He also knows he lied to the priests, which made them vulnerable when Saul shows up, and they have no idea that Saul hates David and wants him dead.

David takes responsibility for the deaths of the priests. He knows his actions indirectly resulted in their deaths. He offers to protect the one remaining priest. Taking responsibility here for your role in how life plays out is the lesson I see here. So often we dismiss how our actions influenced others or caused this or that friction between others and deny it’s our fault. We need to be more like David — compassionate and willing to admit when we caused something as well as take into account how the lies we tell affects others.

8 ) Part personal Question. My answer: David understands that God will deal with evil and those who are good, God will bless. My views are the same. God is the judge not me, and evil He allows for His own purposes, and I trust God will deal with it. I also know if you obey the Lord, He will bless you, and you will flourish.

Conclusions: BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 13, Day 3: 1 Samuel 22 and Psalm 52:

What a fascinating look into the mind of a madman and how people will twist whatever they hear to suit their needs. Saul is throwing a pity party and, blinded by his own pride, kills innocent people. It’s scary because we all do this on some level, especially when we read into situations or don’t have all the information. But here, when Saul finds out the truth about the priest, he still accuses him of wrong doing. How often do we do this as well? Don’t believe the truth and then still hold grudges against others?

The second lesson we see is how our lies affect others — even white lies. We never know how it plays out. It’s always best to tell the truth no matter the consequences than tell a lie and watch the consequences explode.

Great analysis of David and Saul here and great contrast. You gotta love the writer here who perfectly juxtaposes these stories for us so we can see how to act and how not to act. God is good!

End Notes BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 13, Day 3: 1 Samuel 22 and Psalm 52:

Commentary 1 Samuel 22:

What a whirlwind of a life David has led! David rose to fame killing a Giant, married the king’s daughter, defeated the Philistines, avoided repeated attempts on his life, and said goodbye to his best friend, Jonathan, and his family and began a life as a fugitive for who knows how long. Then David had a brief, but intense period of backsliding, a dramatic turn to the Lord, and deliverance from a life-threatening situation.

What was the cave of Adullam?

  • Adullam means refuge
  • The cave became David’s physical refuge
  • God was David’s spiritual refuge

Most archaeologists believe that the cave of Adullam was not too far from the place where David defeated Goliath, in the hills of Judah.

Psalm 142 is David’s discouragement in the cave of Adullam. Psalm 57 describes David as the Lord strengthened him in the cave and prepared him for what was next.

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Who were the people in the cave of Adullam?

  • First, David’s family came to him. This is a precious gift from God because previously all David had was trouble and persecution from his father and his brothers (1 Samuel 16:11 and 1 Samuel 17:28). Now they join him at the Adullam cave.
  • God called an unlikely and unique group to David in the Adullam cave. These were not the men David would choose for himself, but they were the ones God called to him. They were distressed, in debt, and discontented with life.

These are the people you want around you: those who come to you when you are in distress — not when life is going great. These men all came to David when he was down and out, hunted and despised. Once David came to the throne, there were a lot of people who wanted to be around him. But it’s the 400 men in the cave who are the loyal ones.

These are the people who come to Jesus — the forlorn, the distressed, the ones seeking something more from life.

This was not a mob. This was a team that needed a leader, and David became that leader. God doesn’t work through mobs. He works through called men and women.

This was a solid beginning to a rebel army if David wanted it. An unprincipled leader might make these 400 men into a gang of rebels or cutthroats, but David did not allow this to become a rebel army against King Saul.

David made them into the kind of men described in 1 Chronicles 12:8: Mighty men of valor, men trained for battle, who could handle the shield and spear, whose faces were like the faces of lions, and were as swift as gazelles on the mountains.

What do we learn from the men called at the cave of Adullam?

  • David was the one anointed by God to be the next king over Israel, and he became Israel’s greatest earthly king. But just as much as God called David, God called these four hundred to come beside David.
  • God leads through a called and anointed man (Noah and the ark, Moses and Egypt).
  • God rarely calls that man to work alone. David needed these 400 men, even if he never thought so before. There are those called to lead and those called to support the leader. Each is just as important as the other.

David took his parents to Moab because his great-grandmother Ruth was a Moabite (Ruth 4:18-221:4). He wanted his parents to be safe in whatever battles he may face in the future, and he feared Saul might retaliate against him and kill his parents.

David doesn’t know the whole story. He knew he was called and anointed to be the next king of Israel, but he had no idea how God would get him there. David had to trust and obey when he didn’t know what God would do.

Gad counseled David to leave his own stronghold and to go back to the very stronghold of Saul. This probably wasn’t what David really wanted to hear, but he obeyed anyway. David had to learn to trust God in the midst of danger, not on the other side of danger.

Saul enters the picture

When we see Saul with a spear, we know he’s out to kill. He calls David “the son of Jesse”, refusing to acknowledge his achievements.

In his fleshly, self-focused world, everything revolved around Saul. He became paranoid and whiny, and he led through guilt and accusation. He lied about Jonathan, and thus constructed elaborate lies and conspiracies in his own head against him.

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Doeg the Edomite

Here’s an ambitious man out to take full advantage of Saul’s paranoia to advance himself. We last saw him in 1 Samuel 21:7 in Nob, at the tabernacle at the same time David came there.

Doeg implicated the priest Ahimelech as David’s accomplice. “Look at all the help Ahimelech gave David. Surely, they are working together against you Saul, and Ahimelech probably knows exactly where David is and where he is going.”

He knew how to divert Saul’s anger and suspicion from himself onto the priests.

Saul continues in his paranoia, thinking everyone is out to get him.

Why even white lies are dangerous

Here we see the effect David’s lies had on Ahimelech (that ultimately resulted in his death).

Ahimelech told the exact truth. When David came to Ahimelech, the priest questioned him carefully (Why are you alone, and no one is with you1 Samuel 21:1). Instead of telling Ahimelech the truth, David lied to him. This put Ahimelech in a very vulnerable position.

Ahimelech was unaware of the hatred Saul has for David, partly due to the lie David told him (1 Samuel 21:2).

Saul has turned to murdering in cold blood. Many scholars think Saul is angry at God for abandoning him and stripping him of his crown and, being unable to carry out his anger on the Lord, strikes out at the innocent such as Ahimelech and his family. This was the worst act Saul will commit.

To their credit, Saul’s servants feared God more than Saul and they refused to murder the priests. Doeg, who was not a Jew but an Edomite, didn’t hesitate to murder the priests and their families.

How did David cause the death of Ahimelech and his family?

  1. David’s mere presence with Ahimelech that made Ahimelech guilty in Saul’s eyes, and there really wasn’t anything David or anyone could do about that.
  2. David’s lying to Ahimelech made the priest vulnerable before Saul.i. David’s lies did not directly kill Ahimelech and the other priests. But at the very least, he kept Ahimelech from dying with greater honor. If Ahimelech knew of the conflict between David and Saul, he could have chosen to stand with David and die with greater honor.ii. We know from both 1 Samuel and the Psalms that David turned his heart back to the LORD and asked forgiveness after his lies to Ahimelech. David was restored, but there was still consequences to come of the lies, and now David sees those consequences.

David could not do anything about the priests who were already murdered. He confessed his guilt in the matter and sought forgiveness from the LORD. Now, all he can do is minister to the need in front of him – Abiathar, the surviving priest.

Commentary Psalm 52:

Though the condemnation of Doeg in this Psalm is strong, we sense it would be stronger in light of the mass-murder he committed. Yet this is David’s contemplation upon the incident, a careful examination of the root and end of Doeg’s evil.

Doeg took pride in his lies and murder.

“The thought conveyed in this Hebrew word (boast) is not necessarily that of a person strutting around making extravagant claims to others about his or her abilities. Rather it is that of a smug self-sufficiency that does not parade itself openly simply because it is so convinced of its superiority.” (Boice)

Doeg murdered 85 civilians, mostly priests who were not trained for battle – hardly the work of a true mighty man. Like several other commentators, Poole thought this was used in an ironic sense: “O mighty man! he speak ironically. O valiant captain! O glorious action! to kill a few weak and unarmed persons in the king’s presence, and under the protection of his guards! Surely thy name will be famous to all ages for such heroical courage.” (Poole)

Leaf from Psalter: Psalm 52, Initial D with Seated Apostle
Psalm 52 from manuscript from 1270 in Flanders

Spurgeon puts this more succinctly:  “A mighty man indeed to kill men who never touched a sword! He ought to have been ashamed of his cowardice.”

David earnestly believed that Doeg’s way would fail. God’s goodness would outlast his evil. It’s true that Doeg was a mighty man, but that was nothing compared to God and His never-ending goodness.

When David wrote the goodness of God, he used the word El to refer to deity instead of the more common Elohim. Some commentators believe the use of El emphasizes the strength and might of God.

David mentions the destruction and deaths that came from what Doeg reported (1 Samuel 22:18-19).

Some people love evil, and some people love to lie. Doeg fulfilled both aspects. He loved the destruction his devouring words brought.

Boice believes Doeg was just as calculating as evil as there is reason to believe there was a gap in time between David visiting the tabernacle at Nob and Doeg’s report to King Saul. “He knew he had a piece of valuable information and kept it to himself until it would best serve his interests to divulge it.” How many times do we do this?

Because the goodness of God endures forever (Psalm 52:1), Doeg and his kind would be destroyed forever.

The four images David uses to describe judgment

  1. The wicked will suffer everlasting ruin
  2. The wicked will be snatched up
  3. The wicked will have their tent torn away
  4. The wicked will be uprooted

Out of the land of the living. This phrase is seen elsewhere (Isaiah 53:8; Ezekiel 32:32)

When the coming judgment against Doeg happens, the people of God will notice it, and it will cause them to honor and revere God. It will also make them laugh in satisfaction at the destruction of such an evil man. This is righteous joy — something acceptable. This is not laughing at people because you are better than them.

Note it is the righteous that learn from this; not the evil who don’t care.

What can we learn from Doeg?

  • He fails to trust God and instead trusts riches (often what happens to people when you glean the favors of a king)
  • We often are drawn to evil and lying because we fail to trust God can and will work through goodness and truth. We lie to ourselves, saying that we have to lie, do evil, or deceive because it’s the only way. It’s never the way.

The significance of the olive treeImage result for psalm 52

“The olive is one of the longest-living trees; here the point is doubly reinforced, for he pictures an olive ‘in full sap’ and one that grows in a sacred courtyard.” (Kidner)

Psalm 92:13 may indicate that there were trees at or near the house of God.

“Hope” is also translated “wait”. Our strength is to wait on God and His will. Therein lies our honor.

What does Psalm 52 show us about David’s mindset?

What do we learn from Psalm 52?

  • We can be in the cave, but still have David’s unwavering faith, trust, and peace.
  • Just because men are evil does not mean we lose our faith in God

BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 13, Day 2: 1 Samuel 21 and Psalm 34

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Summary 1 Samuel 21:

David, now on the run, goes to Nob to the priest Ahimelech, asking for bread. He lies to obtain it since all the priestsImage result for 1 samuel 21 had was consecrated bread, which is bread reserved for the priests. But David is desperate. He is given the sword he killed Goliath with by the priest as well. One of Saul’s servants saw David at the priest’s place (which would later cost the priest his life).

David, desperate, flees to Achish, king of Gaul, who has heard of David. David pretends to be insane in order to stay.

Summary Psalm 34:

Written when David was with Achish and pretending to be insane, David is praising God for delivering him from evil, saving him from troubles, blessing him, and keeping him from want. David advises us to do good, seek peace, and don’t tell lies. He hears our cries and delivers us. He slays the wicked. He protects us and heals us.

BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 13, Day 2: 1 Samuel 21 and Psalm 34:

3) David is desperate, so he lies to the priest. God is always present, and Jesus as well.

4) The fact that they knew who he was. Word might get out to Saul where he was hiding. David pretended to be insane in order to stay. Psalm 56 tells us that the Philistines captured David and have no intentions of letting go the man who killed Goliath.

5a) David is grateful to God for taking care of him and providing all that he needs. He knows God will punish those who pursue him and do evil.

b) Personal Question. My answer: David is very positive and confident in God as he is on the run. He knows God is taking care of him and in His time, all will be as it is supposed to be. This is encouraging to stay upbeat and know God is in control and to let Him be in control.

Conclusions: BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 13, Day 2: 1 Samuel 21 and Psalm 34:

Unimpressed with the questions. I just felt they were cursory to say the least.

End Notes BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 13, Day 2: 1 Samuel 21 and Psalm 34:

Commentary 1 Samuel 21:

David flees to the right place — a priest. The priest, however, is confused on why such a prominent person would be alone. David lies about his situation, which he will regret later (1 Samuel 22:22).

Many of us would have lied in the same circumstances; but that does not excuse it.

What is holy bread?

The tabernacle of the Lord had a table that held twelve loaves of bread, symbolizing God’s continual fellowship with Israel.

  • Literally, consecrated bread means showbread or “bread of faces.” It is bread associated with and to be eaten Image result for 1 samuel 21before the face of God. F.B. Meyer calls the showbread“presence-bread.” To eat the showbread was to eat God’s bread in God’s house as a friend and a guest of the Lord, enjoying His hospitality. In that culture eating together formed a bond of friendship that was permanent and sacred.
  • The bread was always to be fresh. David receives the leftovers.
  • One must be clean to eat the holy bread.
  • It was to be eaten by the priests: And it shall be for Aaron and his sons, and they shall eat it in a holy place (Leviticus 24:9).

Why did the priest give the bread to David?

  • The priest understood human need was greater than customs, as Jesus pointed out in Matthew 12:1-8

POWERFUL LESSON FOR US:

We cannot add to God’s word. God never said the bread was “only” for priests. Human traditions are never more important than God’s word itself, but we must never elevate our extension or application of God’s Word to the same level as God’s word itself.

Doeg the Edomite: The word translated chief means mighty but can also be used to mean violent or obstinate. Doeg will show himself to be a violent and obstinate man. We shall meet him again.

David continues in his lies to get his sword. It appears David is now trusting in weapons over faith in God, as shown by his continued lies. To us, God’s word should be our “give it to me” cry.

Why did David flee to Gath?

David’s next move is confounding. David is now among the Philistines. He must be discouraged or deceived to think he could find peaceful refuge among these enemies of Israel.

  • It didn’t make sense for the man who carried Goliath’s sword to go to Goliath’s hometown (1 Samuel 17:4). It didn’t make sense for the man who was sustained by the sacred bread of God to find refuge among the pagans. It didn’t make sense for the man after God’s own heart to lie.

The Philistines of Gath recognized David as the king of the land of Israel. These ungodly men understood David’s destiny better than King Saul. Here, we see the price of fame (1 Samuel 18:6-7).

David is captured by the Philistines as Psalm 56 tells us.David thought he could find anonymity or sympathy among the ungodly Philistines in Gath and disappear, but he was wrong. Psalm 56 describes David’s journey from fear to praising as a prisoner in Gath.

Psalm 56 shows that David turned back to the Lord here. Hence, the slide that had started since he left Jonathan to now stops. Saul never turned back on his path.

Why did David act like a madman?

Basically, David humiliated himself before the Philistines. The saliva on the beard was a sign of madness because men in that culture would consider this something only a man out of his right mind would allow.

David’s plan worked. Achish decided that this wasn’t David after all, or if it was he was such a pathetic specimen that he may as well let him go.

Was David walking in the Spirit or in the flesh when he pretended madness?

Some commentators believe that David was in the flesh and trusting in himself. But the change of Psalm 56 happened before David’s escape, and it made sense that the Lord would guide David into a path of escape that would humble him. When David tried to protect himself with lies and tried to find refuge among the ungodly, he really was acting crazy. Trusting in God was the only sane thing to do.

Commentary Psalm 34:

Psalm 34 is David’s declaration of joy when he escaped from Gath with his life. The title of Psalm 34 reads, A Psalm of David when he pretended madness before Abimelech, who drove him away, and he departed. Abimelech was probably a title given to rulers among the Philistines; the ruler’s proper name was Achish (1 Samuel 21:20).

A fugitive from Saul, David went to the Philistine city of Gath but found no refuge there and narrowly escaped (1 Samuel 21:10-22:1). Following that, David went to Adullam Cave where many desperate men joined him. This joyful and wise Psalm seems to have been written from that cave, and sung in the presence of those men.

The structure of this Psalm is acrostic, or nearly so. Each verse begins with another letter of the Hebrew alphabet, except for the letter waw. The purpose in this Psalm mainly seems to be as a device used to encourage learning and memorization.

Psalm 34 begins beautifully (Psalm 34:1-4) as David is full of gratitude to God who got him out of a mess he himself created.

Take away from 1 Samuel 21 and Psalm 34:

  • God’s amazing goodness is shown when He delivers us when we don’t really deserve it.

David was hiding in his heart from God. Paul, in his great passage on boasting, may have remembered this saying and this episode, and so recalled his own ignominious escape from another foreign king (2 Corinthians 11:30-33.

Glorify is magnify in Hebrew. David knew there was something magnetic about the true praise of God. When one genuinely praises God, he or she wants to draw others into the practice of praise.

Magnify means to make Him larger in one’s perception. Magnification does not actually make an object bigger, and we can’t make God bigger. But to magnify something or someone is to perceive it as bigger, and we must do that regarding God.

Keys to praying:

  1. David sought the Lord
  2. The Lord heard David
  3. The Lord delivered David

Commentators are divided as to if David sinned when he feigned madness among the Philistines or if he was obedient and guided by God.

“The more we can think upon our Lord, and the less upon ourselves, the better. Looking to him, as he is seated upon the right hand of the throne of God, will keep our heads, and especially our hearts, steady when going through the deep waters of affliction.” (Smith, cited in Spurgeon)

The idea is that they draw something from God’s own glory and radiance. Later, the Apostle Paul would explain much the same thought: But we all, with unveiled face, beholding as in a mirror the glory of the Lord, are being transformed into the same image from glory to glory, just as by the Spirit of the Lord. (2 Corinthians 3:18) This radiance is some evidence that one has truly looked to Him.

Radiant is a word found again in Isaiah 60:5, where it describes a mother’s face lighting up at the sight of her children, long given up for lost.” (Kidner)

What is a cry to the Lord?

  • A cry is short and not sweet.
  • A cry is brief and bitter.
  • A cry is the language of pain.
  • A cry is a natural sound.
  • A cry has much meaning and no music.

David is at a low point. A rag-tag group of desperate losers gathered to him at Adullam. David was still filled with praise and trust, even knowing that God had an angelic camp of protection all around him.

Image result for guardian angelDo guardian angels exist?

Many times in the Old Testament, the angel of the LORD is an actual material appearance of Yahweh Himself (as in Judges 13 and some other places). We don’t know if David meant that is an angelic being sent by God, or God Himself present with the believer. Both are true.

“The fugitive, in his rude shelter in the cave of Adullam, thinks of Jacob, who, in his hour of defenceless need, was heartened by the vision of the angel encampment surrounding his own little band.” (Maclaren)

David challenged the reader (or singer) of this Psalm to experience God’s goodness for himself or herself. It could only come through a personal encounter, in some ways similar to a taste or to see.

Taste and sight are physical senses, ways in which we interact with the material world. In some ways, faith is how we interact with the spiritual world. In this sense to taste and to see are trusting God, loving Him, seeking Him, looking unto Him.

“Both Hebrews 6:5 and 1 Peter 2:3 use this verse to describe the first venture into faith, and to urge that the tasting should be more than a casual sampling.” (Kidner)

Spurgeon: “There are some things, especially in the depths of the religious life, which can only be understood by being experienced, and which even then are incapable of being adequately embodied in words.”

David thought to fear the LORD was much like trusting Him and experiencing His goodness. This fear is the proper reverence and respect that man has for Deity. If you really experience God’s goodness, if you really experience the blessedness of trusting Him, you will also have an appropriate fear of the Lord.

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“The word ‘lions’ may be a metaphor for those who are strong, oppressive, and evil.” (VanGemeren)

“Were there lions prowling around the camp at Adullam, and did the psalmist take their growls as typical of all vain attempts to satisfy the soul?” (Maclaren)

Hiding in Caves

Many who were in distress, in debt, or in discontent gathered at Adullam cave (1 Samuel 22:1-2) with David. Here, David teaches them and offers advice.

  • Fear the Lord by doing right and obeying
  • Don’t speak evil
  • Don’t lie or deceit
  • Do good
  • Pursue peace with man and God
  • God listens
  • God rewards and punishes

Spurgeon on this passage:  “To teach men how to live and how to die is the aim of all useful religious instruction. The rewards of virtue are the baits with which the young are to be drawn to morality.”

Meyer on this passage:  “A bird with a broken wing, an animal with a broken leg, a woman with a broken heart, a man with a broken purpose in life – these seem to drop out of the main current of life into shadow. They go apart to suffer and droop. Life goes on without them. But God draws near.”

According to the Gospel of John, David spoke not only of his own experience, but also prophetically of the Messiah to come, Jesus Christ. John explained that the Roman soldiers that supervised the crucifixion of Jesus came to His body on the cross, expecting to hasten and guarantee His death in the traditional way – breaking the legs of the crucified victim. When they looked carefully, they learned that Jesus was already dead, and they pierced His side to confirm it. John wrote, these things were done that the Scripture should be fulfilled, “Not one of His bones shall be broken” (John 19:36).

The evil-doers own evil destroy himself or the evil-doer will be in misery.

There is no condemnation

Many centuries later the Apostle Paul would write, There is therefore now no condemnation to those who are in Christ Jesus (Romans 8:1). Even under the Old Covenant, David knew something of this freedom from condemnation.

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BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 12, Day 5: Psalm 23 & Psalm 36

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Summary Psalm 23:

David praises the Lord for his faithfulness. David wants nothing. God restores his soul; God guides him; God takes away his fear; God comforts him; God gives him an abundant life. Goodness and love will follow him, and he will dwell with God forever.

Summary Psalm 36:

The wicked do not fear God. They do not know they sin. The plot evil, do wrong, and follow a sinful course. God’s love, faithfulness, righteousness, and justice is unfailing. Men find refuge in God’s wings. In God’s light we see His love. God overcomes all evildoers.

BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 12, Day 5: Psalm 23 and 36:

13) “He makes me lie down in green pastures, he leads me beside quiet waters, he restores my soul. He guides me…surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life.” All of these. Guiding my life. Restoring me when I’m empty inside. Granting me rest when I am weary. Leading me on the path of righteousness. Dwelling with him forever. Love is with me every day.

14) Personal Question. My answer: David about sums it up perfectly. Most unbelievers don’t know they sin and don’t care. They plot evil, have no moral compass, and don’t fear God. But God will overcome. Sin does breed sin and perpetuates and is ignored.

15) Personal Question. My answer: David knows God overcomes all and is in control. His love is bountiful, and He grants us abundance. We will have hardships, but He is our shepherd, guiding us to Him. It’s good to know God is in charge and to rely on Him completely when the hardships come.

Conclusions: BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 12, Day 5: Psalm 23 and Psalm 36:

With arguably the most famous Psalm in the Bible as out study, BSF doesn’t dive into it enough. So much comfort, goodness, and wonder woven in Psalm 23. Please see End Notes for complete discussion of David’s heart and beauty in this amazing Psalm.

See this great summary video of the book of 1 Samuel HERE

End Notes BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 12, Day 5 : Psalm 23 & 36:

Commentary Psalm 23:

This beloved Psalm bears the simple title, A Psalm of David. Scholars believe this psalm is a remembrance of David’s youth when he was a shepherd. Spurgeon wrote, “I like to recall the fact that this Psalm was written by David, probably when he was a king. He had been a shepherd, and he was not ashamed of his former occupation.”

This famous psalm has been the last words of thousands before they left this side of heaven.

Where is the Lord a shepherd in the Bible?

  • A shepherd to Moses, the Stone of Israel (Genesis 49:24).
  • In Psalm 28:9 David invited the LORD to shepherd the people of Israel, and to bear them up forever.
  • Psalm 80:1 the LORD as the Shepherd of Israel, who would lead Joseph like a flock.
  • Ecclesiastes 12:11 speaks of the words of the wise, which are like well-driven nails, given by one Shepherd.
  • Isaiah 40:11 tells us that the LORD will feed His flock like a shepherd; He will gather the lambs with His arm.
  • Micah 7:14 invites the LORD to Shepherd Your people with Your staff… As in days of old.
  •  Zechariah 13:7 speaks of the Messiah as the Shepherd who will be struck, and the sheep scattered (quoted in Matthew 26:31).
  • John 10:11 and 10:14 Jesus clearly spoke of Himself as the good shepherd, who gives His life for the sheep and who can say, “I know My sheep, and am known by My own.”
  • Hebrews 13:20 speaks of Jesus as that great Shepherd of the sheep
  • 1 Peter 2:25 calls Jesus the Shepherd and Overseer of your souls
  • 1 Peter 5:4 calls Jesus the Chief Shepherd

Ancient Middle Eastern cultures thought of their kings as shepherds as well.

The idea of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was precious to early Christians. One of the more common motifs in catacomb paintings is Jesus as a shepherd with a lamb carried across His shoulders.

It’s remarkable that the LORD would call Himself our shepherd. “In Israel, as in other ancient societies, a shepherd’s work was considered the lowest of all works. If a family needed a shepherd, it was always the youngest son, like David, who got this unpleasant assignment.” (Boice)

“David uses the most comprehensive and intimate metaphor yet encountered in the Psalms, preferring usually the more distant ‘king’ or ‘deliverer’, or the impersonal ‘rock’, ‘shield’, etc.; whereas the shepherd lives with his flock and is everything to it: guide, physician and protector.” (Kidner)

“A sheep is an object of property, not a wild animal; its owner sets great store by it, and frequently it is bought with a great price. It is well to know, as certainly as David did, that we belong to the Lord. There is a noble tone of confidence about this sentence. There is no ‘if’ nor ‘but,‘ nor even ‘I hope so;’ but he says, ‘The Lord is my shepherd.’” (Spurgeon)

“The sweetest word of the whole is that monosyllable, ‘My.‘ He does not say, ‘The Lord is the shepherd of the world at large, and leadeth forth the multitude as his flock,’ but ‘The Lord is my shepherd;’ if he be a Shepherd to no one else, he is a Shepherd to me; he cares for me, watches over me, and preserves me.” (Spurgeon)

The idea behind God’s role as shepherd is a loving care and concern. David found comfort and security in the thought that God cared for him like a shepherd cares for his sheep.Image result for psalm 23

David felt that he needed a shepherd. The heart of this Psalm doesn’t connect with the self-sufficient. But those who acutely sense their need – the poor in spirit Jesus described in the Sermon on the Mount (Matthew 5:3) – find great comfort in the idea that God can be a shepherd to them in a personal sense.

“A sheep, saith Aristotle, is a foolish and sluggish creature… aptest of anything to wander, though it feel no want, and unablest to return… a sheep can make no shift to save itself from tempests or inundation; there it stands and will perish, if not driven away by the shepherd.” (Trapp)

“I shall not want”

  • “All my needs are supplied by the LORD, my shepherd.”
  • “I decide to not desire more than what the LORD, my shepherd, gives.

Sheep don’t always know what it needs and what is best for itself, and so needs the help from the shepherd.

Sheep lie down (rest) only when it is without fear, friction, flies, and famine.

Restores may picture the rescue of a lost one. “It may picture the straying sheep brought back, as in Isaiah 49:5, or perhaps Psalm 60:1 (Hebrew 60:3), which use the same verb, whose intransitive sense is often ‘repent’ or ‘be converted’ (egHosea 14:1f.; Joel 2:12).” (Kidner)

“In Hebrew the words ‘restores my soul’ can mean ‘brings me to repentance’ (or conversion).” (Boice)

The shepherd would guide the sheep to what he needed.

The valley of the shadow of death

  • A valley is a low point — not the exhilaration of a mountaintop
  • Death — the ultimate end
  • Shadow — not death itself but the lurking evil in his path

David walks through the shadow of death; it is not his destination or dwelling place. In fact, it is only the Lord’s presence that makes this bearable.

We face only the shadow of death because Jesus took death itself for us.

Those facing death have been comforted, strengthened, and warmed by the thought that the LORD will shepherd them through the valley of the shadow of death.

Light must exist in order to cast a shadow. God as light is casting the shadow; all we do is walk through it to Him

Evil still lurks, but we do not fear it for the shepherd is with us. It is at this moment that the “He” of Psalm 23:1-3 changes to “You.” The LORD as Shepherd is now in the first person.

The rod and staff

The rod and the staff were instruments used by a shepherd. The idea is a sturdy walking stick, which was used to gently guide the sheep and to protect them from potential predators.

There is some debate among commentators as to if David had the idea of two separate instruments (the rod and the staff), or one instrument used two ways. The Hebrew word for rod (shaybet) here seems to simply mean “a stick” with a variety of applications. The Hebrew word for staff (mishaynaw) seems to speak of “a support” in the sense of a walking stick.

Kidner notes: “The rod (a cudgel worn at the belt) and staff (to walk with, and to round up the flock) were the shepherd’s weapon and implement: the former for defence (cf1 Samuel 17:35), and the latter for control – since discipline is security.”

Maclaren writes: “The rod and the staff seem to be two names for one instrument, which was used both to beat off predatory animals and to direct the sheep.”

Either way you look at it, the rod and staff was a comfort to David, knowing God guided him and corrected him.

The significance of the table

  • Table is bounty
  • Prepare is foresight and care
  • Before me is personal attention
  • Presence of enemies is always overcoming obstacles

Image result for psalm 23“Here the second allegory begins. A magnificent banquet is provided by a most liberal and benevolent host; who has not only the bounty to feed me, but power to protect me; and, though surrounded by enemies, I sit down to this table with confidence, knowing that I shall feast in perfect security.” (Clarke)

In the Old Testament world, to eat and drink at someone’s table created a bond of mutual loyalty, and could be the culminated token of a covenant.

Mercy is the covenant-word rendered ‘steadfast love’ elsewhere. Together with goodness it suggests the steady kindness and support that one can count on in the family or between firm friends.” (Kidner)

Commentary Psalm 36:

This Psalm is titled, To the Chief Musician. A Psalm of David the servant of the LORD. Psalm 18 is the only other Psalm that uses the phrase “the servant of the LORD” in the title. Bible scholar Trapp observed that Psalm 18 comes from David’s old age and Psalm 36 from a younger David. From youth to old age, David was the servant of the LORD and “He took more pleasure in the names of duty than of dignity.” (Trapp)

An oracle of transgression could mean David were divinely taught by the sins of others or it’s the voice within a sinner.

We see “oracle of the Lord” in Genesis 22:16 and “oracle of David” in 2 Samuel 23:11.

It is likely that Paul had this Psalm in mind as he composed the opening chapters of his great letter since he quotes verse 1 in Romans 3:18.

The wicked thinks of himself much more highly than he should both in regard to his sins (his iniquity) and his prejudices (hates). Flattery can be us thinking we are more than we actually are; it doesn’t have to come from others.

How does one flatter himself with regards to sin?

Matthew Poole elaborates:

  • Sins “are not sins, which a mind bribed by passion and interest can easily believe.”
  • Sins “are but small and venial sins.”
  • Sins “will be excused, if not justified by honest intentions, or by outward professions and exercise of religion, or by some good actions, wherewith he thinks to make some compensation for them or some other way.”

“The phrase ‘on his bed’ is parallel with ‘on the way’. The ungodly considers evil both in his lying down and in his walking.” (VanGemeren)

Sin is found in what we don’t do as well as in what we do.

The translation of mercy here is inconsistent for the same Hebrew word hesed is translated as loving kindness is both Psalm 36:7 and 36:10. This wonderful word speaks of God’s love and mercy, but especially to His covenant people.

David can only describe these attributes of God with the biggest things he can think of – the heavens, the clouds that fill the sky, the great mountains, and the great deep of the sea.

“The word precious establishes the change from the immense to the intimate and personal.” (Kidner)

Loving kindness in verse 5 1s too great to grasp and in verse 7 is too good to let slip. (Kidner)

What does shadow of Your wings mean?

Bible commentators see the shadow of Your wings 2 ways:

  1. The wings of the cherubim that are over the throne of God and represented in His tabernacle and temple, including the ark of the covenant, the very representation of His throne.
  2. Like a mother hen covering her young chicks under her wings to protect, hide, and shelter them.

We saw this in Ruth with Boaz (Ruth 2:12), and when Jesus was speaking of Jerusalem (Matthew 23:37).

I’m inclined to think both.

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The word fullness here is literally fatness. “The fattest is esteemed the fairest and the most excellent food; therefore the saint was enjoined to offer the fat in sacrifice under the law. As God expects the best from us, so he gives the best to us.” (Swinnock, cited in Spurgeon)

The fullness (abundance) of your house is will one of our great joys in heaven when we come to our Father’s house. With unmeasured satisfaction we will have the right to roam heaven and say, “Is this ours? And is this ours?” and say it unto eternity.

River of delight/pleasures: “Possibly a reference to Eden may be intended in the selection of the word for ‘pleasures,’ which is a cognate with that name.” (Maclaren)

What does “in your light we see light” mean?

We see light twice: light discovering and light being discovered and enjoyed.

Light is invisible by itself. Everything is invisible until light strikes it. So it is with God: we can’t see Him, but “in his light” (under his loving influence), we see and understand His love in all that surrounds us. God’s overwhelming generosity stands in complete contrast to the self-important plotting of wicked humans.

John wrote in the opening words of his Gospel: He was the true Light which gives light to every man (John 1:9). “It is hard to doubt that John was thinking of Psalm 36:9 as he composed the prelude.” (Boice)

“The Hebrew is, draw forth, or draw out thy lovingkindness: a metaphor either taken from vessels of wine, which being set abroach once, yield not only one cup, but many cups; so when God setteth abroach the wine of his mercy, he will not fill your cup once, but twice and seven times” (Greenhill, cited in Spurgeon).

Unlike the righteous who may fall seven times yet rise up again (Proverbs 24:16), the workers of iniquity remain in the dust as God protects His servants.

‘They are struck down,’ (thrown down) is the same word as in the picture of the pursuing angel of the Lord in Psalm 35.” (Maclaren)

THERE: Some scholars think it refers to the pride mentioned in the previous verse, others to the place where the workers of iniquity practiced their sin.

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BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 12, Day 3: 1 Samuel 19 with Psalm 59

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Summary 1 Samuel 19:

Since the plan with the Philistines didn’t work, Saul would take matters into his own hands and call for David’s death. He asked his son and attendants to kill David. Jonathan warned David his life was in danger and told him to go into hiding.

Jonathan reasons with his father, Saul, who took an oath not to put David to death. David and Saul’s relationship is mended. Once again, the Philistines attack, and David defeated them again.

Saul once again threw his spear at David. This time, David flees after his wife warns him, and she puts an idol (why does she even have one?) in the bed to be David. When Saul confronts her as to her role in David’s escape, she claims David threatened her life.

David flees to Samuel’s home of Ramah for protection. Saul sends men after David, but God protects David and makes the men prophesy. Eventually, Saul goes to Ramah himself to get David, and God makes him prophesy as well.

Summary of Psalm 59:

David prays to God to protect him from his enemies (in this case, Saul). He’s done no wrong, yet he is attacked. David knows God will go before him and take care of his enemies for His glory. David will praise God always for He is his fortress and refuge.

BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 12, Day 3: 1 Samuel 19 with Psalm 59:

6) They risked everything, even death, to save David, since Saul has been prodded by an evil spirit who will kill at a moment’s notice.

7) Personal Question. My answer: Every day in small sacrifices that could cause me harm or risk my job or relationships, such as standing up for what I believe, calling people out when they twist God’s words or writing what I believe.

8 ) Personal Question. My answer: David’s faith is unshakable. He knows God will take care of him and his enemies and do it all for His glory. He knows God will answer his prayers. He knows he is in God’s hands. David’s faith gives him the strength and courage to go on, fighting for God, when all he probably wants to do is flee and go live a cushy life somewhere.

9) Remembering God and who He is and what He is capable of strengthens us as well as we are facing our own enemies in this world. It will give us the courage to fight another day and strengthen our faith as we allow God to be in charge and lead us in His ways. We walk differently and act differently when we don’t worry, knowing God is in control.

Conclusions: BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 12, Day 3: 1 Samuel 19 with Psalm 59:

I like reading David’s thoughts and prayers along with the action of the Old Testament. It’s like a movie or book, having inside knowledge of what the character is thinking. It puts a personal touch to all the battles and jealousy and hiding. David’s life shows us what a life full of hardships looks like and how it can be used by God for good. Very encouraging.

See this great summary video of the book of 1 Samuel HERE

End Notes BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 12, Day 3: 1 Samuel 19 with Psalm 59:

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1 Samuel 19:

Saul put everyone in a difficult spot, forcing them to choose obedience to a king or obedience to THE KING.

Jonathan loved David, and God made a wonderful bond of friendship between them, sealed by a covenant (1 Samuel 18:1-4). Jonathan knew David was destined to be the next king of Israel, even though Jonathan was officially the crown prince. At the same time, his father and king told him to kill David.

The servants all loved David (1 Samuel 18:5) yet they are commanded by their king to kill David.

Sin is never excused, even when ordered by a higher authority.

We are under authority and commanded to submit to God’s order of authority in many different arenas. There is a Biblical submission from children to their parents, from citizens to their government, from employees to their employers, from Christians to their church leadership, and from wives to their husbands. But in all these relationships, we are never excused from sin because we obeyed an authority that told us to sin. In this case, it would be wrong for Jonathan to obey his father and kill David.

Jonathan stood for what was right AND took action to prevent a wrong by warning David. He did not stand idly by and allow a sin to take place. Putting his own life on the line, Jonathan defended David to his father AND told his father his jealousy is a sin.

Saul’s mind had twisted all the facts from the past and had put David as being selfish about killing Goliath and doing everything for fame instead of for the Lord. Jonathan tells him how it is — something we all need in our lives.

God used Jonathan, but it wasn’t the work of Jonathan. It was the work of the LORD, and Saul recognized this by declaring this oath.

Why did Saul break his oath to not kill David?

  • Saul was in a spiritual battle — a battle he was unprepared for.
  • At the end of 1 Samuel 19:7 there was a truce in the spiritual war involving David and Saul. But whenever we are at a time of cease-fire in the spiritual war, we know the battle will begin again before long.
  • Saul was unprepared to handle temptation, unprepared to handle spiritual attack, and had the opportunity to sin close at hand. Most of us will trip up under those circumstances.

Fun Fact: David never returns to the palace until he is the king of Israel – some 20 years later. From now until the day Saul dies, David lives as a fugitive.

For the second time, Saul breaks his oath (1 Samuel 19:6). not to kill David and sends men after him.

David’s wife, Michal, helps him escape

Michal acts according to the principle of Genesis 2:24Therefore a man shall leave his father and mother and be joined to his wife, and they shall become one flesh. The former family loyalties and obligations take a back seat to the loyalty and obligation to the new family.

During this night, when men watched his house and David escaped, he composed a song unto the LORD found in Psalm 59. David sings in times of trouble.

Why does Michal have an idol?

  • The idol was a teraphim, a figurine used as a household idol or as a fertility and good luck charm. In ancient Israel, teraphim were intended as aids in worshipping the true God. The Israelites didn’t think of the teraphim as other gods, but as representing the God of Israel — which Exodus expressly forbids.
  • The teraphim shows the slow deterioration of Israel even during these good times.
  • The idol shows that Michal didn’t have the kind of relationship with God she should have. This weak relationship with God will reveal itself in Michal as the story of David’s life unfolds (2 Samuel 6:16-23).

Saul’s hatred of David shines through

  • Saul wants to kill David himself
  • Saul calls David his enemy. These are the saddest words in this passage.

You can imagine David’s confusion. So what does he do? Flees to safety, reassurance, and support — Samuel.

The word Naioth comes from the Hebrew word for residence. This spoke of Samuel’s home (which may have had “Naioth” title itself), or it may have been some landmark or specific place in Ramah. Whenever Naioth is mentioned, it is associated with Ramah.

Why are the Israelites prophesying?

  • Prophesying doesn’t necessarily mean the Israelites are all seeing the future. The Hebrew word simply has the idea of speaking under the inspiration of the Holy Spirit. They probably all gave spontaneous and inspired praise to God.
  • This was God’s way of protecting David. This was an unusual work of the Holy Spirit – to come upon men who did not seek after God, who did not long to be filled with the Spirit prophesying.
  • This kept happening. Saul didn’t get the message.

Why did Saul take off his robes?

  • Saul would not humble himself before God, and so God will find a way to humble him.
  • It is unlikely – though possible – that Saul stripped himself bare. The Hebrew word for naked can indicate just stripping down to the undergarments. Saul probably took off all the royal robes that said “prestige” and “royalty,” and laid himself out bare before the LORD in his plain linen undergarments, stripped of all his royalty and glory.
  • A person can be affected by the power of God (resulting in amazing experiences), but not surrendered to the power of God, which results in a changed life. This was Saul.

Saul is among the prophets appeared in  1 Samuel 10:10-12, and it expressed astonishment that someone became a religious enthusiast.

Psalm 59:

This Psalm is about 1 Samuel 19:11-12, which was when the murderous intent of King Saul against David was openly revealed, and David began his time living as a fugitive and in hiding.

David faced many perils and enemies and many of his Psalms begin with this thought. This is common and to be expected when you lead a Godly-life. The man after God’s heart, Israel’s greatest earthly king, had many enemies — as did the Son of David.

Through this Psalm David declared his close and personal connection with God:

Praying for deliverance

Defend me is an ancient Hebrew word, meaning to lift up, as into a safe and defended place. It says, “Lift me up to Your high tower where I am even higher above those who rise up against me.” This idea is repeated three more times in the Psalm (59:9, 16, 17).

The word protect (defend 59:1) like the kindred word ‘fortress’ (defense) (59:9, 16, 17), contains the thought of what is set high up, out of reach.

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Like the best movies of today, David was the target of a focused assassination plot that came from the highest levels of Israel’s government. Many felt they could advance their favor before King Saul by killing David. Knowing the danger, David looked to God for rescue and defense.

David looked to God for help. He didn’t make a claim to sinless perfection. He simply told God there was no justified reason for Saul to send bloodthirsty assassins against him.

Appealing to God

David appealed to God with a variety of His names and titles:

  • Yahweh, the covenant God of Israel (LORD)
  • Elohim Sabaoth, the commander of heavenly armies (God of hosts)
  • Elohi Israel, the God of His chosen people (God of Israel)

The men sent to watch David’s house and kill him were determined. They didn’t give up quickly, and they growled like dangerous dogs.

One bible commentator explains growl: “There is some uncertainty over the word growl, which is the expression used for the Israelites’ ‘murmuring’ — one might almost say ‘whining’ in the wilderness.”

The word belch: ‘Belch’ means to gush out, and is found in a good sense in Psalms 19:1. Here it may perhaps be taken as meaning ‘foam,’. The root idea is of bubbling up and bursting out; so in terms of dogs, ‘See how they slaver at the mouth’.

All who opposed God would be held in derision.

The word defense has the idea of a high tower or fortress. David believed that God was like a strong, high tower for him. It seemed impossible for David to survive against such a powerful conspiracy against him, but God would be his defense, his high tower.

This verse reminds me of the song Strong Tower by Kutless.

My God of mercy. David knew that God would be merciful to him and that God would meet him, even lead him, in his need.

“The word meet (59:10a) is based on the idea of what is ‘in front’ of someone, usually in the sense of confronting them by coming to meet them, as in the beautiful phrase of Psalm 21:13. But it can alternatively imply going in front to lead the way.”

Three titles for God:

  1. My God of mercy
  2. My defense (high tower)
  3. Strength

Spurgeon on “My desire”:  “Observe that the words, ‘my desire,‘ are not in the original. From the Hebrew we are taught that David expected to see his enemies without fear. God will enable his servant to gaze steadily upon the foe without trepidation; he shall be calm, and self possessed, in the hour of peril.” (Spurgeon)

Lessons from praying about defeating enemies

  • David didn’t only want the defeat of his enemies. He wanted them defeated in a way that would do the most good for God’s people. If those enemies were kept alive but scattered, the lesson would last longer.
  • Whenever David prayed for the destruction of his enemies (and sometimes he prayed quite severely), he had in mind not only his personal deliverance, but also what the display of Divine justice would teach God’s people.

David repeated the prayer consume them twice for emphasis.

Let them know that God rules in Jacob to the ends of the earth: These words are very similar to what David said to Goliath in 1 Samuel 17:46.

The line from Psalm 59:6 is repeated for emphasis.

Wandering the streets is like hungry dogs do, looking for food.

David’s heart was filled with songs of praise instead of dark fears. He started the Psalm asking God for His defense (Psalm 59:1); at the end of the Psalm, he was so confident in God that he could sing about it.

David’s life as a fugitive begins

For the next perhaps 10 to 15 years (and the rest of the book of 1 Samuel), David had to live as a fugitive, constantly in danger of his life. It’s interesting to note that David entered the period singing praises and was still singing praises at the end of his fugitive years (2 Samuel 1:17-27).

BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 11, Day 5: Psalms 2 and 110

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Summary of Psalm 2:

David wonders why man even bothers to come against God and Jesus (the Anointed One). God laughs at them, saying Jesus is King, ruler of the Earth. David warns earthly kings to serve the Lord with fear for Jesus can destroy them in a moment. Blessed are those who take refuge in Jesus.

Summary of Psalm 110:

David speaks of Jesus again who is sitting at God’s right hand, awaiting his time to come and rule the earth (the Second Coming). The troops will be ready on that day, arrayed in holy majesty. Jesus is a priest forever in the order of Melchizedek. He will crush king and judge nations.

BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1: Lesson 11, Day 5: Psalms 2 and 110:

12) The complaint is God is in charge, instead of themselves. Same complaint. We want to be in charge of our lives when our lives belong to Him, and He is our Lord and master.

13) God laughs at pitiful mankind. He has installed His own King, Jesus, to rule over all. David warns the kings to be wise and serve God with fear, so Jesus does not destroy them in anger. Jesus spares those who call out his name and take refuge in his name. Isaiah tells us Jesus was pierced for our transgressions, taking our sins upon himself, and his wounds heal us. Jesus took the punishment meant for us upon himself. Thus, he is our refuge from God’s wrath.

14) Jesus is in the order of Melchizedek, which from Genesis means he is above the priests in the order of Levi. Jesus rules over all, will conquer all, and will judge all. The writer of Hebrews interprets this passage as Jesus guaranteeing a better covenant since he has a permanent priesthood and is able to save completely as our interceder.

15) Personal Question. My answer: No matter what is happening here on Earth, God is in charge, and He will conquer evil when the time comes. God will prevail, and we don’t have to worry about anything.

Conclusions: BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 11, Day 5: Psalms 2 and 110:

It seems we should have read Hebrews as well with all the references here to it! I love how God laughs at us and our pitiful attempts to overcome Him. It’s like a giant to an ant. I love Jesus above all else and the picture of crushing because that is how we should think of God — we’re mere specks to Him and His greatness, and He can crush us with a mere touch.

End Notes BSF Study Questions People of the Promised Land 1 Lesson 11, Day 5: Psalms 2 and 110:

Psalm 2 Commentary:

Like many Psalms, the theme of Psalm 2 is emphasized in the final verse. We can defy God and perish, or surrender to Him and be blessed. The Psalm itself does not identify its author, but Acts 4:25-26 clearly attributes it to David.

The Psalmist seems genuinely mystified. The nations have no reason to rage against God, and they have no benefit in raging against Him. All is in vain.

Since the time of Babel, men continue to band themselves together against God. Men feel two or more of them united against God have a better chance than one man against God.

People oppose both the Lord and His Anointed. Anointed speaks of the Christ, the Anointed One. Since Jesus is the perfect representation of the Father (John 10:3014:9), if you oppose God the Father, you oppose Jesus. If you oppose Jesus, you oppose God the Father.

Those who oppose the Lord and His Anointed think of God as a bondage-bringer. God is a bondage-breaker, not a bondage-bringer.

Why does God laugh at mankind?

  • God is in heaven; men are dust on earth.
  • God is all powerful; men are weak.
  • God is love and mercy; men are evil and unforgiving.

The writer of Hebrews quotes this passage in Hebrews 1:5 as evidence of the deity of Jesus and superiority to all angels. He mentions the more excellent name Jesus received, greater than all the angels. This is the “name” Son. While angels are sometimes called the sons of God in a generic sense (Job 1:6), the Father never said “My Son” to any angel in a specific sense. That is reserved for God the Son, the Second Person of the Trinity.

Note the idea of begotten in contrast to created. Jesus was not created; rather He created everything that was created (Colossians 1:16-17). Begotten describes a relationship between two beings of the same essential nature and being, but we create things of a different essential being and nature than ourselves.

The Lord’s Anointed — Jesus Christ

The Lord‘s Anointed holds the nations as His inheritance. He will rule over all nations and all judgment is His (John 5:22).

Revelation 11:15 describes an exciting consummation of this inheritance: Then the seventh angel sounded: And there were loud voices in heaven, saying, “The kingdoms of this world have become the kingdoms of our Lord and of His Christ, and He shall reign forever and ever!”

The Lord‘s Anointed has such power over the nations that they are like clay pots that he can shatter with a blow from a rod of iron. This shows us just how foolish the nations are to defy the Lord and His Anointed. There is no reason and no benefit to their defiant opposition.

Why kiss?

This is the kiss of submission where a dignitary receives the humble kiss of an inferior. It also shows the affection God wants in relationship to Him. God wants us to recognize our proper place before Him, but to also rejoice in Him and be affectionate in our relationship.

“Kissing was the token of subjugation and friendship.” (Clarke)

Take-away from Psalm 2:

  • Will you be broken or blessed? The choice is yours.

Commentary Psalm 110:

This Psalm carries the title, A Psalm of David. Strangely, some scholars and commentators deny David’s authorship. Yet as Derek Kinder noted: “Our Lord gave full weight to David’s authorship and David’s words, stressing the former twice by the expression ‘David himself’, and the latter by the comment that he was speaking ‘in the Holy Spirit’ (Mark 12:36f.).”

Fun Fact: This remarkable Psalm is one of the most quoted in the New Testament. There are 27 direct quotations or indirect allusions to Psalm 110 in the New Testament.

David prophetically revealed the words of Yahweh (the LORD) to the Messiah, David’s Lord. This is clear not only from the context, but especially in how this verse is quoted in Matthew 22:43-45 and Hebrews 1:13.

Psalm 110 in the New Testament

Psalm 110:1 is one of the Old Testament verses most quoted in the New Testament:

Image result for psalm 110The fact that Yahweh—the LORD, the covenant God of Israel—spoke to one that David himself called Lord (Adonai) demonstrates that both Yahweh and Adonai mentioned in this verse are God.

We would say that Yahweh is the Triune God with references to the persons of the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit each being Yahweh. Normally, when Yahweh is mentioned without specific connection to the person of the Son or the Holy Spirit, we assume it refers to God the Father. Therefore, here is God the Father speaking to the Messiah, God the Son.

His enthroned place (Ephesians 1:20Hebrews 8:1).

Footstool here refers kings who used to tread upon the necks of their conquered enemies (1 Kings 5:3Psalms 18:3991:13); Joshua 10:24; Jude 1:7.

Jesus rules over all

Jesus will have rule over all his enemies.  Adam Clarke is among those who think the rod of Your strength represents the Gospel: “The Gospel-the doctrine of Christ crucified; which is the powerful sceptre of the Lord that bought us; is quick and powerful, sharper than any two-edged sword; and is the power of God to salvation to all them that believe.”

When the people of God see and experience the victory of their Messiah, they gladly give themselves to His work. They are willing in the day of His power. Since the Hebrew word translated power is the word for a host or army, the sense is that the Messiah’s people are gathered together as a willing army.

In the Hebrew, volunteers is “willingnesses”, i.e. most willing, as such plural words are frequently used.

The people of God praise the victorious Messiah, and are noted for their beautiful holiness, their radiant being (the womb of the morning), and their ageless strength (dew of Your youth).

Youth’ here is a collective noun, equivalent to ‘young men.’ The host of his soldier-subjects is described as a band of young warriors, whom he leads, in their fresh strength and countless numbers and gleaming beauty like the dew of the morning. (Maclaren, cited in Spurgeon)

Who is Melchizedek?

This is the oath of Yahweh (specifically, God the Father) regarding the Messiah, God the Son. He vowed that the Messiah had an eternal priesthood after the order of Melchizedek, who is mentioned in a single account (Genesis 14:17-24).

The Genesis 14:1-24 account is brief, but densely packed with information about Melchizedek.

  • After Abraham defeated the confederation of kings who took his nephew Lot captive, he met with a mysterious priest named Melchizedek, whose name means king of righteousness and who was also king over the city of Salem (an ancient name for the city of Jerusalem), making him the king of peace.
  • Melchizedek was not merely a worshipper of the true God. He had the honored title priest of the Most High God. The greatness of God magnified the greatness of Melchizedek’s priesthood.
  • Melchizedek blessed Abraham, demonstrating his greatness over the patriarch.
  • Abraham gave Melchizedek a tithe, which is a tenth part of all (all the spoils of battle, as mentioned in Genesis 14:20).
  • There is no mention of any father or mother of Melchizedek, and he appears without any genealogy.

With this oath, God revealed that there is another order of priesthood, apart from the priestly order of Aaron. The priests were all descended from Aaron and served in the tabernacle and temple, offering sacrifices and conducting ceremonies according to God’s law. Yet God established another priestly order, after the pattern of Melchizedek.

The Significance of the Priesthood of Melchizedek

  • This oath (You are a priest forever) was so important that the author of Hebrews refers to it five times (Hebrews 5:65:106:207:17, and 7:21).
  • Hebrews 5:6 and 5:10 emphasize that this was Yahweh’s declaration, not something that the Messiah claimed for Himself.
  • Hebrews 6:20, the emphasis is on the idea that Jesus Messiah serves as a living, active High Priest for His people.
  • Hebrews 7:17 emphasizes that the priesthood of Jesus Messiah according to the order of Melchizedek is better than the priestly order of Aaron because it is eternal and will never end and was founded on a direct oath of Yahweh, unlike the priestly order of Aaron.

The conquest of the Messiah

“The second part of the psalm carries the King into the battlefield. He comes forth from the throne, where He sat at Jehovah’s right hand, and now Jehovah stands at His right hand.” (Maclaren)

“Now the Lord (i.e. Yahweh) and his King act as one, and the army of volunteers which was seen in verse 3 is no longer in the picture. The battle is the Lord’s, yet he and his King are so united.” (Kidner)

With the authority mentioned in Psalm 110:2, the strength of the Messiah extends out of Zion, and brings the righteous judgment of God against even the greatest kings.

The Messiah judges all nations

The Second Coming is referenced here with the slaughter at the Battle of Armageddon (Revelation 19:11-18).

Messiah Himself is refreshed (drink of the brook) and exalted (lift up the head).

  1. Refreshed: Curiously, many commentators take this as a reference to the Messiah’s humiliation. It is better to see it as His refreshment on the day of battle. “Psalms 110:7 is usually taken as depicting the King as pausing in His victorious pursuit of the flying foe to drink, like Gideon’s men, from the brook, and then with renewed vigour pressing on.” (Maclaren)
  2. Exalted: The lifting of the head in the Bible means delivered from all sorrows and sufferings, and exalted to great glory, and joy, and felicity, as this phrase usually signifies (Psalms 3:3 27:6 Jeremiah 52:31) Hanging down the head in the Bible is great grief and shame (Lamentations 2:10).

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